The Evolution Deceit

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Signal Selection in Traffic of Data Among Cells

Every moment hundreds of messages literally rush from one part of our bodies to another. Your cells have been equipped with exceedingly complex recognition systems able to make the right selections from among all this information traffic and extracting relevant information. Codes belonging to the information are translated as the result of a chain chemical transformation.

hayvanlar

With all the amazingly complex, mutually-dependent components, it seems that the cell had to be complete from the beginning … Dr. David Rosevear

 

If the communication system within the 100 trillion cells in the human body remains inoperative for just a matter of seconds and cellular messages cannot reach one another, death can ensue. Present-day communication systems have been established using the very latest electronic technology. The communication system in the cell, however, possesses a technology whose mysteries humanity has yet to fathom.

teknoloji

Every moment hundreds of messages literally rush from one part of our bodies to another. Your cells have been equipped with exceedingly complex recognition systems able to make the right selections from among all this information traffic and extracting relevant information. Codes belonging to the information are translated as the result of a chain chemical transformation.

The chemical messengers carrying these messages are liquids that allow different organs to correspond with one another.55 As a result of this connection, the cells of any living things behave as a whole and act as one in the face of sudden external changes or attacks. The French biologist Andre Lwoff, a Nobel Prize winner in physiology, has stated that every organism can remain alive only by means of the existing complex information:

An organism is a system formed by inter-related structures and functions. It is formed by cells and cells are formed by molecules that are in a flawless cooperation. Each molecule should be aware of what the other is doing. It should be able to receive messages and act according to them.56

The way that cells are able to send and receive messages, recognize signals and unravel codes reveals organisms' abilities to act as a single unit. Coincidence cannot explain how the unconscious, unthinking cells work together in full cooperation and harmony, acting like a single entity with a single aim. This great harmony that results from the messages constantly exchanged by millions of cells is indicative of a superior Creation.

The Communications Provided by Hormones

In many ways, the communications system among cells resembles the system used by human beings. For example, the receptors on cell membranes let them perceive the messages reaching them. Immediately beneath these receptors are structures like switchboards that decode the message reaching the cell. These receptors are located in a cell membrane just 1/100,000 of a millimeter thick, which entirely surrounds the cell. Each receptor, known as tyrosine kinase, consists of three main sections: the antenna, the body and the tail. The shape of that part of the antennae projecting outside the cell membrane resembles the dishes used to receive satellite broadcasts. In the same way that every dish is aimed to receive broadcasts from a specific satellite, so the messages carried by various hormone molecules are interpreted by different receptors. Hormonal messages from other cells make contact with the receptors in the cell membrane. However, every receptor has been created to perceive just one single "message." This special Creation prevents any message setting another receptor into action by mistake.

 
tirozin kinaz

1. Structure of the thyroxin kinase receptor
2. Antenna (thyroxin kinase)
3. Cell membrane
4. Body
5. Tail

In the diagram, some antenna-like components remaining outside the cell are carrying out very similar functions. Messages carried by different hormones are interpreted by different antenna, in the same way that radio antennae collect different wave emissions. The systems within your body are interconnected, acting towards a common purpose. It is of course impossible for coincidence to explain the compatibility between the hormones and the receptors that will interpret them, and for the actions of the cell then to be determined accordingly. This is another proof of the existence of our Lord, Who rules and has knowledge of all.

The hormone and receptor have been so ideally created for one another that almost all biological texts compared theirs to a lock-and-key relationship. Only the right key can open the lock; only the right receptor responds to the hormone being sent, which means nothing to other receptors.

From the moment hormone reaches a cell, a system begins to work inside it. The incoming message reaches the cell's DNA by a special communication system; movement of the cell is provided by the help of this message.

The hormone is transmitted at great speed to the cell nucleus. A most superior technology is employed during this communication process—an even greater miracle than the invention of a computer too small to be seen with the naked eye. Each cell is made up of unconscious protein molecules, and in your body there are 100 trillion cells, each of which possesses an advanced communications system. (For details, see Harun Yahya, The Miracle of Hormones.)

  steroid hormonu

1. Steroid hormone
2. Cell Membrane
3. Hormone
4. Hormone receptor
5. Hormone receptor complex
6. Cell Nucleus
7. DNA in motion
8. mRNA in ribosomes direct protein synthesis

The steroid hormone passes through the cell membrane without the help of a receptor molecule, attaching to a receptor molecule inside. The hormone-receptor complex enters the cell nucleus and affects the DNA to produce protein there. These proteins control physiological processes controlling growth and development. All the systems in your body have been created dependent on one another. For example, the body's activities cannot continue without protein production. But for there to be protein production, all units of the cell must work together. There needs to be packets of information—hormones—to direct those activities, as well as a pituitary gland that instructs hormones to go to the relevant cells and much more besides. It is a violation of reason and the science to suggest that such magnificent balances could have come about gradually and by coincidence.

Hormones, secreted by special cells of the endocrine glands, spread throughout the body through the bloodstream. These hormones secreted into the body fluids are chemical substances that control the body's other cells. It is impossible for hormones, unaware even of the existence of other cells, to choose to assume the task of affecting them. These tasks, requiring a superior intellect, knowledge and consciousness, cannot be determined by tiny molecules. Neither can hormones know that the body has a given need and establish a way to affect the relevant cells accordingly… They simply perform the task set out for them flawlessly, within a perfectly established system, in full submission to Allah, Who gave them this duty and created them as components of this system.

As stated earlier, great harmony exists between cells and hormones. Cells immediately understand the meaning of the messages that hormones bring. For example, when growth hormone arrives, the cells immediately recognize it and systematically implement such details as the rate at which various parts will grow. From that perspective, the cells are told when to produce hormones and in what quantities, to begin and halt production at the right times, and thus direct other hormones. This is clearly the result of an intellect. In the human body, as in every point in the universe, the artistry and knowledge of Allah, the Omniscient is revealed for all to see.

 
steroid hormonu

1. Receptors for many peptide hormones, amino acids obtained from growth factors and hormones
2. Steroid hormones and receptors
3. Nucleus
4. Cell membrane
5. Hormone
6. Special steroid hormone receptor
7. Intracellular fluid
8. Thyroid hormone receptor

All of a living thing's systems and organs must be operative at the same time. The system will not work if there are hormones, but no receptors to perceive them, or if there are receptors, but no hormones. It will also fail if the cell does not know how to use the information being carried. These interconnected balances point to a single truth: Man was created in a single moment, and in a flawless manner.

Strikingly, though hormones reach all the cells via the bloodstream, they have an effect on only their targeted ones. As the hormone moves in the extracellular fluid, certain cells recognize by means of the special receptors on the cells' surface. The chemical message then affects neighboring cells. In order for its message to be deciphered, the chemical messenger binds to the receptors, the most widespread of which are on the cell membrane. Almost all hormone receptors are large proteins, and every cell to be stimulated has between 2,000 and 100,000 receptors.57 But the number of receptors on the target cell is not fixed but can vary from day to day, even from minute to minute. Generally, when a hormone attaches to the target cell's receptor, this leads to a fall in the number of active receptors and to a reduction in the target tissue's sensitivity to the hormone. For that reason, either the receptors are activated at other times, or are re-activated, or else new receptors are produced by the mechanisms forming the cell protein. As you see, everything taking place at every stage is directed towards a particular end. It is self-contradictory to maintain that purposeful phenomena are the work of chance—just one of many matters that face Darwinists with an insoluble dilemma.

In addition, cells generally possess different receptors for the same message. These receptors are generally specific to a single hormone, so that only the receptor that needs to be stimulated is stimulated, and the tissue that needs to be affected is affected.58 In the same way that only a key of a specific shape will open a lock, each receptor functions only when it binds to a molecule (ligand) of the right shape.

These receptors select the different hormones to which they need to bind themselves, never making a mistake. However, there is no need of trial and error for the right lock and key to finally come together. Bear in mind that a single error could have fatal consequences, and you can better appreciate the perfect order in your body. This order of our Lord's is revealed in a verse from the Qur'an:

... He created everything and determined it most exactly. (Surat al-Furqan, 2)

 

  at kuşlar
 

What is in the heavens and in the Earth belongs to Allah. Allah encompasses all things.
(Surat an-Nisa', 126)

Hormones' Effect on the Receptors

A hormone creates its effect by activating target receptors in the cell membrane. When hormones attach themselves to these receptors, they cause changes in the receptor's protein structure. Some hormones have opening and closing effects, similar to the ion channels in the cell membrane. For example, they cause sodium and potassium channels to open and close. In this way, these ions alter the potential of muscle cell membranes and lead to a stimulating effect in some cells, and a calming effect in others.

Superior Technology in Intercellular Information Transfer: The Modular System

uzay mekik

In terms of speed and capacity, the nerve cells in the brain and the eye possess the fastest information transfer capacity known to man. The modular system, used as one of the latest technologies in a great many fields, makes possible rapid and flawless information exchange. The speed of communication between nerve cells is made possible by certain proteins' possessing a multi-connection module, permitting the proteins to coordinate several communication elements at the same time. Through this system, proteins can constantly keep messenger protein groups together and establish exceedingly rapid communications.

To a large extent, for example, your ability to read this book stems from the rapid communication system in your eyes. Were it not for that speed, you would need several seconds to perceive what you had just read.

We may cite the International Space Station, whose construction is still ongoing, as the closest analogy of the cell's modular system. This station, one of the greatest engineering achievements in history, is being built according to the modular system. Nobody can maintain that this space station emerged through the random accumulation of atoms, molecules, winds, lightning and Solar energy. This space station is being consciously constructed as a result of long years of accumulated knowledge and very detailed engineering calculations.

The same applies to the cell. No coincidental effects can create such an advanced technology, requiring intellect and conscious planning. That being so, who established the communication system in the cell, whose secrets scientists have been unable to fully unravel? How was the communication network constructed to respond instantly to the needs of 100 trillion cells? And who created the marvelous modular system that permits communication at such extraordinary speed? Allah "Created all things" (Surat al-An'am, 101) and "Directed the whole affair from heaven to Earth." (Surat as-Sajda, 5). He created the messenger proteins and the marvel of communications these represent, with a flawless structure.

The Speed of Signal Transmission

The Intercellular Communication That Astonishes Scientists

sinyal iletimi

1. Extracellular cell
2. Hormon
3. G protein
4. Cell Membrane

5. Receptor
6. Intracellular fluid
7. Adenylate cyclase

A great miracle can be seen in the harmony between the transmitter and the receptor, how the message finds the receptor without losing its way, the way the message means something to the receptor, and how the cell immediately acts on the message.

The role of the G protein: (a) A hormone attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane. The hormone-receptor complex attaches to a G protein. (b) GTP replaces GDP on the G protein. The G protein undergoes a change of shape, making it possible for the protein to attach to adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase is activated and ensures the transformation of ATP into AMP.

A series of chain reactions then follow, and these reactions lead to a number of changes inside the cell. The G protein is closed with the transmission of the message, and the reaction comes to an end.

The speed at which hormones' complex system works is also astonishing. The messenger molecule's reaching the cell, its attachment to the cell membrane's antenna, initiation of the chemical reaction forming the bond between the hormone and antenna, transference of the hormonal message to the receptor antenna and the forwarding of that message to the cell nucleus—this all takes place exceedingly quickly.

To achieve the necessary speed, many hormones form secondary messengers within the cell. For example, when a hormone in the G protein system reaches the cell surface, it attaches to a receptor and sends a signal to a G protein inside the cell membrane. That G protein, activated according to its type, either increases or reduces the effect of a string of enzymes. Adenylate cyclase is one instance; stimulating this enzyme leads to the production of periodic-AMP, a secondary messenger. A series of chemical reactions then take place, changing the forms of specific proteins within the cell, leading to other cellular reactions. When the level of the primary messengers falls, the G protein is inactivated and its effects come to an end.

The cell uses this exceedingly complex signaling system to increase the efficiency and speed of message transmission. The arrival of a single messenger molecule initiates a series of reactions, reinforcing the original message and transmitting it onward. In addition, the delay between a signal arriving at a G protein and the cell's reaction is only a fraction of a second. By means of the G protein system, for example, light-sensitive retinal cells react to a single photon in just 1/100th of a second. In contrast, other cells may take up to 30 seconds to react to external signals.

Signal Selection In Bone-Cell Communications

hücre

1. Gap-junction channel
2. Junction
3. Intracellular fluid
4. Intercellular gap
5. Sub-junction element

The diagrams show how cells bind to one another to produce a tissue. How do cells know they need to come together to construct an organ? Depending on their location, for example, bone cells form a pelvis bone, a rib cage, or fingers. How do cells know which region of the body they are in? How do they open cavities for the eyes or form a skull to protect the brain? It is impossible for unthinking, unconscious bone cells to create plans requiring a superior intellect. No doubt every detail in the human body exhibits the matchless Creation of Allah.

For bones to take shape, a series of complex processes must occur with flawless coordination. Bone cells known as osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts constitute a sensitive structure and need to communicate with one another in order to take shape in a balanced way. This requires intense coordination between the cells.

Intercellular communication takes place by means of tubular channels known as gap junctions. These channels join cell membranes like a bridge, by entering into interactions with neighboring cells, and make direct contact with those cells' cytoplasm, permitting substances to pass directly from one cell to another.1

In addition, these channels make selections based on substances' molecular dimensions. Permission is given for movement by small molecules, while those of proteins and nucleic acids is prevented. These channels are a perfect means for transmitting bone cell signals.

As you see, communication has a separate importance for every kind of cell. A well proportioned symmetrical bone structure emerges as a result of complex communication. Never forget that to engage in communication, there is a need for a language, and a consciousness to understand that language and act upon it. Such a system cannot spontaneously emerge among cells and then function in the greatest harmony. Allah has created the complex systems possessed by cells and has inspired in every cell its own task.

  1. http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514259351/html/i245454.html; Dr. Joanna Ilvesaro, Finland, Oulu University.

The harmony between the messenger and the receptor, and the way that their communication with one another keeps us healthy at all times, are certainly a great miracle. Many trained chemists and biologists are unable to match the activities inside the cell, carried out on a scale too small to be seen with the naked eye. This undermines the claims of coincidence. Indeed, Darwinists have admitted their helplessness in the face of the complex system in hormones.

The evolutionist writer Von Ditfurth expresses the perfection that he observes at the cellular level, with regard to the communications network among cells:

The many currently known details constitute a field that no medical student can master, yet the pores of the network relationship in question have not even properly opened themselves to modern physiological research. Although we are still at the beginning of the road, we must not forget that the mechanisms of the network that regulates this "internal environment" we are referring to here have a fluid property. 59

The communication among cells, touched on here in only very superficial terms, possesses a complexity that has occupied scientists for decades. Many volumes have been written on the subject. For that reason, the information obtained by scientists is substantial, but nevertheless superficial. There are many issues to consider here. How do the cells take and implement decisions? They assume responsibility for the protection of other cells they have never seen, so carefully as not to overlook the slightest detail. They are sufficiently farsighted to recognize danger. How did they acquire such sensitivity, measurement and timing? In addition, how is it possible for them to make other cells around them aware of what they need to know, to warn them, set them in operation, seek help and act on what other cells tell them in turn? It is a violation of reason and logic to claim that cells acquired all these abilities by blind coincidence.

Furthermore, proteins bring the messages to the cells, receive messages and evaluate them. The gates and pumping systems that control entry to and departure from the cells are proteins too. Proteins accelerate chemical reactions. Whenever there is a need for any protein in the body, certain messengers—themselves proteins—know to find the right location in the body and forward the request for help in the correct way. The protein supplies this communication without becoming lost in the dark recesses of the body, without losing the message it carries, and without doing any harm anywhere. In other words, there is an enormous awareness of the duties to be carried out in every component of the system.

What if Proteins' Tasks were given to you?

proteinler

1. A protein just 1 millionth of a millimeter long

If we think of a protein (1 millionth of a millimeter) in human terms, then the cell in which the protein is found would be the size of a city. Bearing in mind that there are 100 trillion cells in our bodies, then the area governed by that protein would be equal to that many cities.

Were you given responsibility for doing what protein does, what kind of administration could you maintain? You would need to check entries and departures at every one of those cities, ensure flawless communication, identify the needs in each city and ensure that they were met at once, identify the location of the smallest attack and go there at once to intervene. Bear in mind that unconscious collections of molecules do all these things, and the extraordinary nature of what takes place becomes even more apparent. Proteins perform all these difficult and vital functions at every moment, as a result of the order established by Allah.

After a series of complex processes, the message reaching the cell nucleus generates a protein. In an astonishing way, the protein request reaches the right cells from among the body's 100 trillion cells, and the cell receiving the message immediately understands it, acts on it, and obtains a perfect result. We are not dealing with a community of human beings possessed of intellect, information and will power, but with minute unconscious entities, consisting of substances such as phosphorus, carbon and fat. There is no way that these molecules, invisible to the naked eye, can acquire such properties as communications, understanding and identification on their own. Like all molecules, they exhibit seemingly conscious behavior by acting in accord with the special inspiration given them by Allah.

Molecular Traffic on The Cell: Protein Transport

After a car has been produced in the factory and before it reaches the consumer it needs to go through such stages as sale to distributors and registration. The way that proteins produced by cells reach the regions where they are needed is a complex process. The body of a mammal contains approximately 1 billion protein molecules that need to be renewed at least once a month.

blobel

The Rockefeller University researcher Günter Blobel and his team analyzed an important part of this protein distribution system and found that a kind of molecular postal code directs protein to particular locations. Special receptors on the surface of the cell membrane read these signals and permit only the correct protein to pass through or be installed in the cell membrane.

One portion of the newly produced proteins are removed from the cell under the supervision of the cell membrane, to be used outside the cell. Those proteins entering from outside—again regulated by the cell membrane—constitute major protein traffic. The extraordinary coming and going inside the cell is far too small to be seen with the naked eye. But so many particles in such a small space, each with its own important function, can go where they are needed in great order and harmony. Every protein produced in what is known as the ribosome and every protein from other cells will be used in a specific place. But how do these proteins know where they need to go? How do they pass through the cell membranes with their tight safeguards? How does this astonishingly heavy protein traffic function without a mistake ever being made?

There can be no doubt that proteins to be drawn into or removed from a cell, and the cell membrane that permits this, are just some of the proofs of the existence of Allah.

Indeed, anyone who analyzes the molecular structure of the protein, DNA helixes and chromosomes would see that the phenomena of coincidence and chance could never bring such perfect structures into existence. This nonsense has hypnotized literally millions of people, whose reason and good conscience should prompt them to appreciate the marvels in Allah's Creation:

"Your Lord creates and chooses whatever He wills. The choice is not theirs. Glory be to Allah! He is exalted above anything they associate with Him! Your Lord knows what their hearts conceal and what they divulge. He is Allah. There is no god but Him. Praise be to Him in this world and the Hereafter. Judgment belongs to Him. You will be returned to Him."(Surat al-Qasas, 68-70)

  hayvanlar

"Your Lord creates and chooses whatever He wills. The choice is not theirs. Glory be to Allah! He is exalted above anything they associate with Him! Your Lord knows what their hearts conceal and what they divulge. He is Allah. There is no god but Him. Praise be to Him in this world and the Hereafter. Judgment belongs to Him. You will be returned to Him."
(Surat al-Qasas, 68-70)

What! Are they in doubt about the meeting with their Lord? What! Does He not encompass all things?
(Surah Fussilat, 54)

 

Footnotes

55. Christiane Sinding, "Secrets of the Cell Language," Science et Vie, September 1993.

56. A. Lwoff, Z. Virus, Organismus Angewandte Chemie, No. 78, 1966, pp. 689-724.

57. Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, Medical Physiology (Tıbbi Fizyoloji), Istanbul: Nobel Medical Book Houses, , 1996, pp. 928-929.

58. Christiane Sinding, "Linguistic Attainments of Cell Language," Science et Vie, September 1993.

59. Hoimar Von Dithfurt, Im Anfang War Der Wasserstoff ("Secret Night of the Dinosaurs"), Vol. 3 (pp.72-73 in Turkish edition).

 

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