The Views of Islamic Scholars Regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as)
Some Hadiths Concerning the Mahdi (as) in the Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books)
This chapter sets out the views regarding the Mahdi (as) of Islamic scholars who have lived at various times and some of the accounts they have narrated in their works.
As we know, the name of Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books) is given to the entire collection of hadiths consisting of six volumes. The veracity of the hadiths narrated from our Prophet (saas) in these six books has been confirmed by all the scholars of the people of the Sunnah.
Therefore, according to the beliefs of the people of the Sunnah, Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books) are the second most important source of reference after the Qur'an. So much so that as to the trustworthiness of the Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books) denial of the hadiths contained in the collection is regarded as equivalent to denying the Prophet (saas). Many hadiths regarding the system of the Mahdi are narrated in Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books). Appearance in Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books) alone is sufficient to confirm that the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as) is one whose truth cannot be doubted.
Some examples of hadiths regarding the system of the Mahdi and the End Times in Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books) are cited below:
A book of trustworthy hadiths by Imam Muhammad bin Ismail Bukhari (810-870). The most important of the Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books). Ahl al-Sunnah scholars are in agreement that the Sahih Bukhari is the second most important text in Islam after the Holy Qur'an. It contains 7275 hadiths. Imam Bukhari selected these reliable hadiths from among some 600,000 hadiths and completed his Sahih Bukhari over the course of sixteen years.
… Abu Hurairah (ra) narrated: The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'When I was made to walk in the night I encountered the Prophet Moses (as).' Râvî said: The Messenger of Allah (saas) described him. 'I saw him, and he was darkish, like one of the Shenhue men, tall and with straight hair.' The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'I also encountered the Prophet Jesus (as).' The Prophet (saas) described him and said: 'The Prophet Jesus (as) was of medium height, and of a red complexion, as if he had just emerged from the baths...'
… Musa Ibn Ukba told us: Nâfi' said the following: Abdullah ibn Umar (ra) said that one day the Prophet (saas) mentioned the antichrist, saying: '…Note that the antichrist has a squint in one eye. His eye is like a large grape protruding out from the rest of the bunch.'
…Az-Zuhrî told me, from Sâlim, that his father Abdullah ibn Umar (ra) said: No, the Prophet (saas) did not say that the Prophet Jesus (as) was 'Reddish (of the face).' He said: 'I was asleep, and dreamed I was performing tawaf around the Kaaba. At that point, I saw someone dark, with straight, flowing hair. He was limping, leaning on two other people as he walked (around the Kaaba), water was dropping from his head. I asked,
'Who is that?'
'He is the son of Mary,' they said.
As I walked toward him, I also saw someone with a red face, tall and curly hair, with a deformed, bulging right eye; like a large grape protruding from the rest of the bunch. I asked (the people who were there),
'Who is that?'
That is the antichrist,' they said.
Said ibn al-Musayyab heard from Abu Hurairah (ra) that he said: The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'By the One in Whose Hand my soul is, definitely the Prophet Jesus (as), son of Mary will shortly descend amongst you as a just ruler. He will break the cross [annul the mistaken Christian belief that the Prophet Jesus (as) was killed], kill the swine [warn people that eating pork is harmful and remove interest in its consumption], and abolish the jizya, and then there will be great wealth, so much so that nobody will accept of it. In that time, one prostration in prayer will be better than the world and everything in it.'
…Al-Lays related to me from Yunus ibn Yazid and he from Ibn Shihâb, and he from Nâfi, under the protection of Abu Qatada Al-Ansari that Abu Hurairah (ra) said: the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'Although your Imam [spiritual leader] is one of you, what will become of you when the son of Mary descends among you [and the Prophet Jesus (as) follows your Imam]?'
'… Az-Zuhrî narrated that: Said ibn al-Musayyab reported and told me: Abu Hurairah (ra) heard the Messenger of Allah (saas) say: 'The Judgment Day will not take place until the Prophet Jesus (as), son of Mary, descends among you as a just ruler, and breaks the cross [annuls the mistaken Christian belief that the Prophet Jesus (as) was killed] and kills the swine [warn people that eating pork is harmful and remove interest in its consumption], until the jizya [capitation tax on non-Muslims] is abolished and until goods are so plentiful that no one will desire anymore.'
A book of trustworthy hadiths by Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri (821-874). Imam Muslim is one of the best known hadith scholars. He selected his hadiths from around 300,000. The Sahih Muslim is the basic hadith text after the Sahih Bukhari. These two fundamental texts are together known as the 'Sahihayn.'
They would be (spiritual) conquerors of CONSTANTINOPLE (Istanbul). Following that conquest, as they would be busy in distributing the spoils of war (amongst themselves) after hanging their swords by the olive trees, the satan would cry: 'The antichrist has taken your place among your people and family (your kith and kin whose livelihood is under your supervision) and become your Successor [spiritual leader].' Although these words are void and lie, Muslim troops will set out. And when they would come to Damascus they will get ready for battle and while they would be drawing up the ranks they will suddenly get ready to pray. Thereupon, the Prophet Jesus (as), the son of Mary, will descend and draw alongside the Muslim community in order to abide by the Sunnah of the Prophet (saas). At that point, the antichrist, the enemy of Allah, will dissolve like salt dissolving in water when he sees the Prophet Jesus (as). If the Prophet Jesus (as) had left him, he would continue dissolving until he perished altogether.
… Hudhaifah bin Asid (ra) said: The Prophet (saas) was on a military expedition. We were in a lower place than him. Then the Prophet (saas) suddenly appeared alongside us and asked,
'What are you talking about?'
'We are talking about the Last Hour,' we said. The Prophet (saas) said;
'The Last Hour will not come until 10 signs appear first: Land-sliding in the east, and land-sliding in the west, and land-sliding in the peninsula of Arabia, the total of three landslides; dukhan (the smoke), the antichrist, dabbat al-ard (beast of the earth) and emergence of Gog and Magog, the rising of the Sun from the West and the fire which would emit from the lower part of Adan and cause people to migrate!
Shu'ba said: Abdul Aziz bin Rufai reported from Abu Tufail who related from Abu Sariha said something similar while not mentioning the Prophet (saas). One of the two narrators here said of the tenth portent: Descending of the Prophet Jesus (as), son of Mary.
... At this, the antichrist will turn and go away from that nation. That nation will then be afflicted by a drought. Nothing will remain of their possessions. The antichrist will come to a ruin and then say: Bring forth your treasures! Just after, the treasures of that ruin will follow him, like a swarm of bees follows its queen. He will then summon a grown, but youthful young man, and he will strike him with his sword and cut him into two, and he will place the two halves an arrow's flight apart. Then the antichrist will call the young man he has cut in two, and he will come forward smiling with his face gleaming. Just when the antichrist is busy with this, Allah will send the Messiah (as), the son of Mary. He will descend near the White Minaret to the East of Damascus, wearing two dyed garments and with his hands on the wings of two angels. Water will drip from his head when he bows his head, and when he lifts it, drops of clean and nice water like big pearls will drip down. It will be impossible for any unbeliever to remain upright before the wind of his breath. His breath will extend as far as the eye can see. Following that, the Prophet Jesus (as) will seek out the antichrist, and will eventually eradicate him (his corruption) at the Bab-u Ludd (Gate of Ludd) close to the Bait Al-Maqdis. Then a nation whom Allah protected from the evil of the antichrist will come to the Prophet Jesus (as) son of Mary, and the Prophet Jesus (as) will touch their faces with his hand and anoint them. And he will tell them their ranks in Paradise. And it would be under such conditions that Allah will reveal to the Prophet Jesus: I have brought forth from amongst My servants such people against whom nobody is strong or powerful enough to fight. So preserve My servants around you very well at Tur, and make that place an excellent refuge and bastion for them! And Allah will send Gog and Magog. Meanwhile they will 'rush down from every slope' (Surat al-Anbiya', 96), and their vanguard lot will stop by the Lake Taberias and they will drink out all of the water thereof. Then the last of the herd of GOG and MAGOG will reach there and say: 'We swear there once was water here.' Jesus (as), the Prophet of Allah, and his followers are besieged. Finally, an ox head will be more auspicious to anyone of them than 100 of your dinars today. Just after that Jesus (as), the Prophet of Allah, and his companions will supplicate - or pray - to Allah. Allah will send a worm found in the noses of camels and cattle to the enemy soldiers and they will all perish like the death of one single person. The Prophet of Allah (saas) and his companions will then come down. From then on, they will be unable to find anywhere not full of the grease and vile smells of the individuals of GOG and MAGOG. Jesus (as), the Prophet of Allah, and his companions will then supplicate and pray to Allah...
• 242- (155)..........: Abu Hurairah (ra) reported that the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'By Allah in Whose Hand my life is, the son of Mary [the Prophet Jesus (as)] will soon descend among you in certainty as a just judge. He will break the cross [annul the mistaken Christian belief that the Prophet Jesus (as) was killed], kill the swine [warn people that eating pork is harmful and remove interest in its consumption] and abolish the jizya. [At the time] wealth will pour forth to such an extent that no one will accept it.
• 243- ……: Abu Hurairah (ra) narrated: The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'I swear by Allah that the son of Mary will certainly descend as a just judge, and he will definitely break the cross (change the mistaken belief in Christianity that the Prophet Jesus (as) was killed), and kill the swine (warn people that eating pork is harmful and remove interest in its consumption), and will definitely abolish the jizya. (By then) young she-camels will definitely be left behind, nobody will demand them, all hostilities, enmities and malice will certainly disappear. He will definitely summon to wealth (or people will be summoned to accept wealth) but not even one will accept it.'
• 244- ……: Abu Hurairah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'Although your Imam [head of state] is one of you, what will become of you when the son of Mary [the Prophet Jesus (as)] descends among you [and follows your Imam]?'
• 245- ……: Abu Hurairah (ra) narrated the following: The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'What will become of you when the son of Mary [the Prophet Jesus (as)] would descend amongst you and followed you?
• 246- ……: Abu Hurairah (ra) reported: The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'What will be your state when son of Mary [the Prophet Jesus (as)] descends amongst you and makes one of you the Imam?
• 247- (156)..........: Jabir bin Abdullah (ra) reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saas) say: 'A section of my people will pursue fighting for the truth and will prevail in triumph till the Last Hour.' He said: 'After all the Prophet Jesus (as), son of Mary will then descend and the commander of the Muslims would invite him, and say: Come and lead us in prayer. Thereupon the Prophet Jesus (as) would say: 'No, some amongst you are commanders over some other (amongst you) as this is the honor from Allah for this people.''
A book of trustworthy hadiths collected by the hadith scholar Muhammad bin Isa Tirmidhi (824-893). It consists of six volumes. Tirmidhi is a well-known hadith scholar and imam, who achieved fame through his learning of hadiths by heart. He was born in the village of Bug, near the city of 'Tirmidh' to the east of the Ceyhan River, visited such places as Khorasan, Iraq and Hijaz in order to study the hadiths, was taught by Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari and was also instructed together with various other hadith scholars, benefiting from Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ad-Darami and third century scholars. These include the books Ash-Shama'il, Al-'Ilal, At-Tarikh and Al-Jamiu's-Sahih. This last text in particular enjoys great value and fame among Ahl al-Sunnah. This is also one of the Al-Kutub As-Sittah. A great many commentaries have been written about this book. Hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) are related in the fourth volume of the Sunan.
According to Savban's (ra) account, the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'My only fear for my Ummah is the emergence of statesmen who are deviant and cause others to deviate. Savban (ra) also said that the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: A community from my Ummah will continue in the truth, victorious over superstition, until Allah's command is realized. Those who leave them without help will be unable to harm them.
According to Abdullah bin Mas'ud's (ra) account, the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'The end of the world will not come until one who is from my Ahl al-Bayt (The Prophet (saas)'s family) and whose name resembles mine will take the lead of the Arabs and come to power of their rule.'
According to Abdullah bin Mas'ud's (ra) account, the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'One who is from my Ahl al-Bayt (The Prophet (saas)'s family) and whose name resembles mine will take command.' Asim says: Abu Salih narrates that Abu Hurairah said: 'Even if just one day remains of the life of this world, Allah will prolong that day to allow that person to take command.'
According to Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (ra)'s account, he said: We were afraid that something would happen after our Prophet (saas) and we asked the Messenger of Allah (saas), who said: 'Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear from among my Ummah and will live for five or seven or nine (Zayd is the doubtful narrator). Abu Sa'id says, we asked 'When is this period?' The Messenger of Allah (saas) said, 'Years,' and he continued: 'Someone will come to Hazrat Mahdi (as) and say, give to me, Hazrat Mahdi (as), and Hazrat Mahdi (as) will fill his robe with as much as he can carry.'
Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah's Messenger (saas) said: 'By Allah in Whose Hand is my soul, definitely the son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. When he comes, he will break the cross [annul the mistaken Christian belief that the Prophet Jesus (as) was killed], kill the swine [warn people that eating pork is harmful and remove interest in its consumption], abolish the jizyah, and wealth will be so abundant that no one will accept it.'
I heard from Mujamma ibn Jariya al-Ansari (ra) that he said: 'The Prophet Jesus (as), son of Mary, will destroy the antichrist [his fitnah] at the place known as the Bab-u Ludd (Gate of Ludd.)'
... The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'What I fear for you is something other than the antichrist. If the antichrist appears while I am still among you, then I will defeat him on your behalf with evidence. If he appears when I am not there, then every Muslim must defend himself with his own evidence. I entrust all Muslims to Allah against his evil. The antichrist is in the form of a young man with curly hair, with a protruding eye. He resembles Abduluzza ibn Qatan. Let whoever among you encounters him recite the first verses of Surat al-Kahf. The Messenger of Allah (saas) continued speaking: The antichrist will appear between Damascus and Iraq, and will seek to quickly corrupt everywhere, right and left. O servants of Allah, if you live to see those days, persevere in the religion of Allah and be steadfast.'
Sunan Abu Dawud
A book collected by the hadith scholar Hafiz Abu Dawud Sulaiman bin Ash'ath Sijistani (817-888). It consists of 4,800 hadiths. The imam is from the town of Sistan in Iran. In his youth he traveled widely to acquire learning and, according to Az-Zahabi, he studied under Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Baghdad in Hijri 220.
He received instruction in the hadith from several experts and became one of the great hadith scholars. Tirmidhi, Nasai and even Ahmad ibn Hanbal related hadiths from him.
After residing in various cities, he settled in Basra upon invitation of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Wathiq, where he died. He wrote works on other subjects as well as the hadiths.
Among his works are the Sunan, known as the 'Sunan Abu Dawud,' part of the Al-Kutub As-Sittah. It is narrated that he selected and collected the hadiths in this book from some half a million in order to preserve the Sunnah of our Prophet (saas).
The chapter called the 'Kitab Al-Mahdi,' concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as), related 13 hadiths in regard to the features of Hazrat Mahdi (as), the portents of his coming, and what he will do once he has appeared.
It is narrated from Ali (ibn Abu Talib) (ra) that the Messenger of Allah (saas) said:
If there were only one day left of the life of this world, Almighty Allah will send a man from my Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet's (saas) family). Just as the earth is (previously) filled with oppression, he will fill the earth with justice.
Narrated Umm Salamah (ra): I heard the Messenger of Allah (saas) say: 'Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be of my family, of the descendants of Fatimah.'
According to Abu Ishaq's account;
Hazrat Ali (ra) looked at his son, Hassan, and said:
'This son of mine is a sayyid, as named by the Messenger of Allah (saas). A man will come forth from his line, whose name is that of our Prophet (saas), who resembles him in conduct, but not in appearance.'
… Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (ra) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saas) said:
'Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be of my stock. He has a broad forehead and a prominent nose. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny, and he will rule for seven years.'
Umm Salamah (ra) the wife of the Prophet (saas) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saas) said:
'Disorder will occur at the death of a successor. A man of the people of Medina will flee forth to Mecca. (But) Some of the people of Mecca will bring him out (from where he is) and swear allegiance to him against his will between the Corner (in Kaaba) and the Station of Abraham. An expeditionary force will then be sent against him from people of Damascus, but that army will sink at the place know as Beyda between Medina and Mecca. When the people see that, good and pure servants from the people of Sham and Iraq will come and swear allegiance to him. Then there will arise a man of Quraysh whose maternal uncles belong to the tribe of Kalb and send an expeditionary force against those who have sworn allegiance. But those who swear allegiance will be victorious over the army from Kalb. This army is an army dispatched by the Kalb. So woe to those not ready for the spoils of Kalb!... The one [Hazrat Mahdi (as)] who is the Successor will share those goods out. Some people will labor with the Sunnah of their Prophets. Islam will prevail completely over the world. He [Hazrat Mahdi (as)] will remain seven years, then pass away and the Muslims will pray over him.'
Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud:
The Prophet (saas) said: If only one day of this world remained. Allah would lengthen that day (according to the version of Za'idah), till He raised up in it a man who belongs to me or to my family whose father's name is the same as my father's, who will fill the earth with equity and justice as it has been filled with oppression and tyranny (according to the version of Fitr). Sufyan's version says: The world will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man of my family whose name will be the same as mine. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 36, 4269)
It is narrated from Abu Ishaq that;
Hazrat Ali (ra) looked at his son, Hassan, and said:
'This son of mine is a sayyid, as named by the Messenger of Allah (saas). A man will come forth from his line, whose name is that of our Prophet (saas), who resembles him in conduct, but not in appearance.'
Hazrat Ali (ra) cited the story, 'He will fill the world with justice...' he said.
Harun said: We were told by Amr ibn Abi Qays, on the authority of Mutarrif bin Tarif, on the authority of Abu Al-Hassan on the authority of Hilal bin Amr: I heard Ali say: The Prophet (saas) said:
'A man will come forth from Ma Wara an-Nahr (beyond the river) whose name is al-Harith ibn Harrath. In front of him (his army), there will be a man whose name is Mansur. He will pave the way for the family of Muhammad (saas) [Successor as spiritual leader], just as the Quraysh prepared the way for the Messenger of Allah (saas). Every believer must help him or respond to his call.'
Sunan Ibn Majah
A book of trustworthy hadiths by the hadith scholar Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yazid (824-886). Ibn Majah is an eminent hadith scholar from Qazvin who visited such places as Baghdad, Basra, Mecca, Kufa, Damascus, Egypt and Rayy in order to research knowledge of the hadiths.
He wrote various works, on history, commentaries and knowledge of the hadiths. His best-known book is the two-volume Sünenü'l-Mustafa, known as the Sunan Ibn Majah. This is one of the sources of the hadiths known as the Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books). In one chapter, the 'Al-Fitan,' he has reported those hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as).
... Hudhayfah ibn Asid Sariha (ra) narrated:
(One day,) the Messenger of Allah (saas) came amongst us from an upstairs room while we (the Companions) were discussing the Hour and he said:
'The Hour will not come till these ten major signs take place. (They are) Rising of the sun from the west, antichrist, Duhan (the smoke), the Dabbat (al-Ard), Gog and Magog, the descent of the Prophet Jesus (as), the son of Mary, on earth, three times sinking down of the earth, one in the east, one in the west and one in the Arabian peninsula, and the fire that will emanate from the furthest point of the land of Aden and drive men to the Day of Judgment in such a way that it spends the night with them wherever they are and wait over them when they have sleep in day time.'
'… Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah's Messenger (saas) said:
The Hour will not come till the Prophet Jesus (as) the son of Mary (Muhammadi) will descend (from heaven) among you as a just judge and righteous imam. He (when he comes) will break the cross [annul the mistaken Christian belief that the Prophet Jesus (as) was killed], kill the swine [warn people that eating pork is harmful and remove interest in its consumption], and abolish the jizya. Wealth will flow to such abundance that no one will take it.'
According to what is narrated from Ali (ra), the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'Al-Mahdi (as) is from within us, he is from Ahl al-Bayt. Allah will purify him (accept his repentance or equip him with enlightenment and wisdom) in a single night.'
'… Abdullah (ibn Masud) (ra) narrated; he said:
It is certain that my Ahl al-Bayt will suffer scourge, kidnappings and exile after me. After all, a nation with black flags will come from the east and demand goodness (dominion). But their demand will be rejected. At this they will wage war and they will be helped (by Allah). After that, what they demand (sovereignty) will be given to them. But they themselves will not accept this and entrust dominion to one from my Ahl al-Bayt. This person (commander) will fill the world with justice as people previously filled it with oppression. Whoever lives to see that day, let him reach (join) him even if it means crawling across snow.'
'When you see what happens (to that army), even if you have to crawl over snow (go) and swear loyalty at once! Because he is Hazrat Mahdi (as), the caliph of Allah [Muslims' spiritual leader],' he said.
According to what is narrated from Abdullah ibn Harith ibn Jaz az-Zubaidi (ra); the Messenger of Allah (saas) said:
'Some people will appear from the east and prepare the way for Hazrat Mahdi (as).'
It has been reported by Abu Said Al-Khudri (ra) that he said, the Messenger of Allah (saas) said:
There will be in my community a Mahdi, who will reign for seven years, or eight years or nine years. My community will receive such benefits which they had never before experienced. The skies will be opened up for them. The earth will not withhold anything of its vegetation. A person will stand up and say, "O Mahdi! Give me." He will say to the man, "Take!" (as much as you please).
'... From Said ibn al-Musayyab (ra); he said:
We were with Umm Salamah (ra) (mother of believers). At one point we discussed Hazrat Mahdi (as). Upon this, Umm Salamah (ra) said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saas) say, 'Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be descended from the line of my daughter, Fatimah'.'
'... Anas Bin Malik (ra) narrated:
I heard the Messenger of Allah (saas) say:
'We, the children of Abdulmuttalib are the dignitaries of the people of Paradise. Me, Hamza, Ali, Jaffar, Hassan, Hussain and Hazrat Mahdi (as).'
Hazrat Ali (ra)
In his famous collected works, Hazrat Ali (ra) refers to the hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as) and the End Times. One section from the Mushtdaqzade interpretation reads as follows:
'Aya my son!... when things become disordered (get confused, surge… ) await Hazrat Mahdi (as)…'
• … By the will of Allah, this will appear in full form in the Hazrat Mahdi (as). The number of sheikhs giving reports from this rank has declined… Let alone remarks from the knowledge and learning of that stage remain …
This stage is beautifully expressed in the verse:
'That is Allah's favor which He gives to whoever He wills. Allah's favour is indeed immense.' (Surat Al-Jumu'a, 4) (Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani, Vol. I, Letter 32, p. 125)
• Hazrat Mahdi (as) whose coming has been promised is even educated with the name of knowledge. Like Hazrat Ali (as), he has relation with the Prophet Jesus (as). One stage of the Prophet Jesus (as) is at the head of Hazrat Ali (as), and one at that of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
… Hazrat Mahdi (as) whose coming is promised will assume perfect guardianship. He will come over this Tariqah (Path) of Aliyya and this will perfect and complete the Silsilah (chain, lineage of shaykhs) of Aliyya. Because all the qualities of guardianship are under this Nisbat (transmission) of Aliyya. (Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani, Vol. I, Letter 251, pp. 550, 554)
• As for how this provision can follow on to later generations: There is Hazrat Mahdi (as) among them. Our Prophet (saas) has imparted the tidings of his coming and of his body; he said,
• 'He is the caliph of Allah [Muslims' spiritual leader] .' (Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani, Vol. I, p. 814)
All the portents of the Judgment Day imparted by our Prophet (saas), the Mukhbir as-Sadiq (the Truthful Messenger) are true. There is no possibility of falsity in them. Among them are the following:
The unexpected rising of the Sun from the West. The coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as) and the descending of the Prophet Jesus (as). Peace and blessings to our Prophet (saas), the coming of the antichrist, the appearance of Gog and Magog, the emergence of the dabbat al-ard, the appearance of smoke from the
sky and people being enfolded with and punished with painful affliction. They will suffer such troubles that people will say, 'Our Lord, remove the punishment from us. We are really muminun.' (Surat ad-Dukhan, 12)
One hadith states: 'Hazrat Mahdi (as) will come. There will be a cloud just above his head. There will be an angel there who will cry out: This is Hazrat Mahdi (as), follow him...'
Our Prophet (saas) stated that:
There are four kings on Earth in total… Two are from the believers and two from the unbelievers. The believers are Dhu'l-Qarnayn (as) and Solomon (as). The unbelievers are Nemrud and Buhtunnasir. One from my people will rule the world as fifth. In other words: Hazrat Mahdi (as).'
In another hadith our Prophet (saas) said:
'The world will not break down till Allah sends someone from my Ahl al-Bayt [the Prophet's (saas) family]. His name will be similar to my name and his father's name to my father's name. With his coming, the earth will fill with equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny…'
In another hadith the Prophet (saas) said:
'Companions of the Cave will be the followers of the Prophet Jesus (as).' The Prophet Jesus (as) will descend to earth at the time of Hazrat Mahdi (as). Hazrat Mahdi (as) will join with the Prophet Jesus (as) in the intellectual destruction of the antichrist. In the time of his rule, the Sun will be eclipsed on the fourteenth day of Ramadan; on the first of that day, the Moon will grow dark. These occurrences will be contrary to custom and the calculations of the astrologers.'
There are many other portents which our Prophet (saas), the Mukhbir as-Sadiq (the Truthful Messenger) informed; but these are different than previously told.
Sheikh ibn Hajar wrote a collection of portents of Hazrat Mahdi (as), containing two hundred signs.
While the promised situation is fully apparent, one community fell into falsehood because of utmost ignorance… May Almighty Allah show them the true path. (Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani, Vol. 2, Letter 380, pp. 1162-1163)
... His appearance will be at the beginning of the century. Eighteen years have currently gone by since the beginning of the century.
In the hadith, we are told this about the portents of Hazrat Mahdi (as): 'A tailed star (comet) will be born in the east and shed its light.'
… The position of this comet is according to its course. In other words: Its face is in the direction of the east. Its tail is towards the west. This long white trail is in its rear. It is appropriate for it to be described as having a tail. Its daily passage, on the other hand, is from east to west. However, its unique (due to its special position) course is linked up to the course of the mighty throne. Almighty Allah knows the truth.
The time when Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear is close at hand. Up until the start of the hundred (century), in which he will appear, many forerunners and preludes will be manifested. May Allah be pleased with him. The forerunners and preludes to his appearance resemble the miraculous events of our Prophet (saas). Those marvels came before the realization of the prophethood of our Prophet (saas). Indeed, they have explained it in these terms:
When the drop of Abdullah's sperm that had the form of the Prophet (saas) Muhammad entered the womb of Amina, all idols collapsed face downwards. All devils were dismissed from their tasks. Angels overturned the throne of Iblis (satan) and threw it into the sea. They tormented him for 40 days.
The night that our Prophet (saas) was born Kisraa's (Chosroes) palace shook and its 14 battlements collapsed.
The fire of the Magians died out. Yet the fire had been burning for a thousand years and never been put out during that time.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) is also great. For that reason there will be great reinforcement to the benefit of Islam and Muslims. His guardianship will also have great hidden and manifest occupation. He will be the possessor of many marvelous states and wonders.
In his time, many astonishing states will make their appearance.
As a requirement of the above meanings, it is appropriate that: Before the appearance of his physical body, supernatural marvels should take place… Just like: The miraculous events before the prophethood of our Prophet (saas). The events that unfold will be the precursors of his appearance.
Indeed, the significances described are comprehended from the hadiths.
May you know that in one hadith our Prophet (saas) stated: 'Hazrat Mahdi (as) will not come until blasphemy invades every corner and its ruling is openly committed in the community.' (Letters, Vol. 2, Letter 381, p. 1169-1171)
The coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as) after 1,000 years serves this purpose. Our Prophet (saas), the Last Messenger, gave the glad tidings of his coming. The Prophet Jesus (as), on the other hand, will come down after thousand years. (Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani, Vol. I, Letter 209, p. 440)
It is possible that these two centuries are more beneficent in this respect: The eminent coming of the guardian servants of Allah, minority of ones in bid'at (adoption of some rituals or innovations on the grounds that they are essential components of Islam, although they violate the teachings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah), the rarity of followers of deviancy and disobedience. Even the happening of such is not an obstacle that some guided servants of this rank are more beneficent than the guided servants in those two centuries. We may speak of Hazrat Mahdi (as) as an example... (Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani, Vol. 1, Letter 209, p. 441)
Muhammad B. Rasul Al-Husayn Al-Barzanji
The first of the great portents is the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as)… There are many hadiths concerning this matter, despite their appearing in various accounts.
In his work Manaqib al-Shafi, Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Asnawi says; the reports narrated from the Prophet (saas) on the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as) have attained the status of tawatur (reliable)… It is reported that he will be descended from his Ahl al-Bayt.
First stage: His name, lineage, birth, external appearance, followers, and those who turn their backs on him
His name appears as 'Muhammad' in the majority of accounts; in others, he is described as 'Ahmad'… His father's name is 'Abdullah'…
Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi report from Ibn Masud (ra) that the Prophet of Allah said: 'His name will be the same as mine, and his father's the same (as my father's).'…
His title is the 'Mahdi'… Because Allah has guided him to the right path… At the same time, he is 'Jabir' … Because he will repair the broken hearts of the Community (Ummah) of Muhammad (saas)… Or he will defeat and crush the cruel and oppressive people…
He is descended from the Prophet's (saas) Ahl al-Bayt … According to probable and true accounts, it is declared that he will be descended from the lineage of Fatima… In some accounts it is suggested that he will be from the line of Abbas…
It is variously reported among accounts that he is descended from Fatima: While some accounts say that he is from the progeny of Hasan (ra); in other accounts it is suggested that he is from the line of Husayn (ra)… Since majority of the lineage of Fatima descends through Hasan (ra) and Husayn (ra), there are various accounts on this subject.
This is the same in regard to various accounts about the lineage of Abbas. However, there is one from the sons of Abbas bearing the name (of Mahdi)… Mansur came before Hazrat Mahdi (as)…
Allegiance to him
They will swear allegiance to him in Mecca between Al-Hajar al-Aswad and Ibrahim's Maqam on the night of Ashura.
He will migrate to Jerusalem. After this emigration, Medina will be destroyed and be the home of wild people. Hadiths were reported on the construction and development of Bayt al-Maqdis and destruction of Medina.
His physical appearance
He is a person with broad forehead, small nose, big eyes, and glittering and spaced teeth. His beard is thick and he has the sign of our Prophet (saas) on his shoulder. His thighs are long and he is Arab in complexion. He will be slow of speech. He will strike his left knee with his right hand when he speaks slowly and steadily. He is 40 years old. In another account he is between agest of 30 and 40. He is extremely submissive towards Allah and he wears two pieces of cotton cloth. In moral terms, he is like the Prophet (saas). He is of medium height. His eyebrows are curved.
His moral qualities
He will follow on the path of the Prophet (saas). He will not awaken he who sleeps, and will cause no blood to be shed. He will leave no Sunnah uninvigorated and no heresy uneradicated. Just like the Prophet (saas) he will impose the obligations of the faith during the End Times. Like Dhu'l-Qarnayn and Sulayman, he will rule the whole world. He will break the cross [annul the mistaken Christian belief that the Prophet Jesus (as) was killed], kill the swine [warn people that eating pork is harmful and remove interest in its consumption]. He will restore all things to Muslims. The world will be filled with justice instead of cruelty and torture. He will measure all things equally according to the criteria of truth and justice.
In the same way that the inhabitants of the earth and skies will be content with him, the birds in the air, the wild beats in the forest and even the fish in the sea will be content with him. Nobody will remain who is not pleased with the community of Muhammad (saas). He will make a herald to shout, 'Is there nobody in need?' and the answer will come, 'We have no need.' Only one man will come and say, 'I am in need.' At this, Hazrat Mahdi (as) will say to him:
'Go. The treasurer will give you what you wish.' The man will go to the treasurer and tell him of the situation, and the treasurer will say:
'Open your lap.' He will open his robes, and when the treasurer gives him a large amount of goods, the man will feel remorse and say, 'I am the greediest of all the community of Muhammad (saas)!' He will seek to give back to the treasurer what he had been given. But the treasurer will say, 'We do not take back what we have given.' People with good and bad moral qualities will drown in unseen blessings during his time. Mercy will rain from the sky, abundance will increase on Earth, and ithe will find all its treasures.
All countries will open their doors to him. The kings of India will submit to him and give all their treasure to Jerusalem. They will come and shelter with him from all sides, like bees sheltering in their hives. Three thousand angels will descend to human beings, as they did with the first, and smite those who are opposed to him in the face and on the back. (In other words, they will be assisted by three thousand angels.) Gabriel (as) will be at the head of the angels and Michael (as) will be at the sonunda of the angels.
In his time, the wolf will graze alongside the sheep, children will play with snakes and scorpions, and people will receive 700 measures for every measure of wheat they sow. Evils such as usury, plague, adultery and alcohol will disappear. Life spans will grow longer and goods entrusted will be returned. Nobody will be left who harbours hostility towards the Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet (saas)'s family). His word will be beloved among people. Thanks to him, Allah will put an end to blind corruption. Peace and security will reign on Earth. A woman will even be able to go on the Hajj with five other women with no man accompanying them.
The performance of some of these by the Prophet Jesus (as) is no obstacle to this. Because they can both do the same thing. They will probably come at the same time. The proof of this will emerge in the future.
The Second Stage
Portents that introduce him and signs that his coming is approaching…
In terms of portents;
He will bear the shirt, sword and banner of the Messenger of Allah (saas). That banner has never to this day been opened since the passing away of the Prophet (saas). It will never be opened until the appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as). The oath 'Al Biat'u Lillah' (Allegiance is to Allah) will be written on the standard.
There will be a turban on his head, from which a man will emerge and point to Hazrat Mahdi (as) and cry, 'This is the Mahdi (as), the caliph [spiritual leader] of Allah! Follow him!'
He will plant a dry reed tree in a dry place, and it will suddenly flourish and grow leaves.
For those who desire miracles from him, he will point to a bird flying in the sky and it will fall into his hands.
A voice will be heard from the sky: 'O men; Allah has now distanced the tyrants, the hypocrites and their assistants from you. He has brought the most auspicious of the community of Muhammad (saas) to your head. Join him in Mecca, he is Hazrat Mahdi (as)! His name is Ahmad bin Abdullah. Another account reads: 'He has appointed Jabir, the most auspicious of the community of Muhammad, to you. Join him in Mecca, he is Hazrat Mahdi (as). His name is Muhammad bin Abdullah!'
The ground will give forth its darlings as if they were tablets of gold. People's hearts will grow rich. The earth will be filled with abundance. A treasure will emerge from beneath the Kaaba. He will distribute this on the path of Allah. The Ark of the Covenant will be brought forth from Antioch or Lake Tiberias. It will be raised on men's shoulders and placed before him at Bayt al-Maqdis. When the Jews see this they, with a few exceptions, they will become Muslims. In the same way that the sea was divided for the children of Israel, so it will be divided for him. It will be easy for him to pass in between. Men with black banners will come from Khorasan and swear allegiance to him. He will meet with the Prophet Jesus (as), son of Mary, and the Prophet Jesus (as) will perform the prayer (salat) behind him. He will bear the sign of the Prophet (saas).
Signs to Show That His Coming Is Close at Hand
• The River Euphrates will split open and give forth a mountain of gold.
• The moon will be eclipsed on the first night of Ramadan, and the sun on the fifteenth night. Such an eclipse, the like of which has never been seen since the creation of the world, will involve two eclipses of the moon during the month of Ramadan.
• A comet, both ends of which shed light radiantly, will be born, three or seven days in succession, from the east.
• A great fire will appear, darkness will be seen in the sky, and the sky will become an utterly different crimson unlike the usual red. This will be cried in a language the world can hear and understand…
• A village known as 'Harista' will be destroyed in Damascus. A voice from the sky will cry out the title of 'Mahdi', and everyone in east and west will hear it! Sleepers will awake, those standing will sit, and those sitting will rise to their feet.
• An uprising in the month of Shawwal, talk of war in Dhu al-Qi'dah, and war will break out in Dhu al-Hijjah. Pilgrims will be plundered and their blood will be shed (at Jamra al-'Aqaba which is a stone pillar representing satan that is stoned during the pilgrimage.) Some of these have already happened.
• There will be disagreements and frequent earthquakes. Voice from the sky will call: 'Open your ears! The truth is from the line of the Prophet Muhammad (saas)!' From the earth, one will call: 'Truth is together with Jesus (as) from the line of Abbas!' The first will be the call of an angel, the second will manifest as the call of satan.
• A mountain of gold will disclose from under the River Euphrates. (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li-ashrat al-sa'ah, p. 166)
• Hazrat Mahdi (as) will point to a bird flying in the air, and the bird will fall into his palm… He will plant a bone-dry reed tree in dray soil, and it will suddenly flourish … (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li-ashrat al-sa'ah, p. 173)
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will take the matter seriously... (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li-ashrat al-sa'ah, p. 175)
Then Allah will conquer Constantinople (Istanbul) for the people of His most loved friends. He will remove illness and tribulation from them, and before much time has passed the Prophet Jesus (as) will descend and war against the antichrist.' Imam Suyuti (in his Jami al-Kabir) also set this hadith out at great length.
The work known as the Iqdud Durar reads: Constantinople has seven ramparts. Each rampart is twenty-one Turkish yards. And it has a hundred gates. The final rampart that follows the city is ten Turkish yards. It is built on an estuary opening onto the Greek [Rum] Sea. The sea stretches as far as the provinces of Greek [Rum] and Andalusia.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will plant a banner by the sea when he goes to perform his ablutions before the morning prayer (salat), and the waters will recede from him. And he will cross over the path that thus opens and cry out to people: 'O people, come and pass. Almighty Allah has divided the sea for you as He did for the children of Israel.' And they will cross. They will cry out taqbir (Allah is Great), and this time the tremor will be rather stronger. When they raise the third taqbir, twelve towers will collapse. They will enter directly into the city from there…' (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li-ashrat al-sa'ah, p. 181)
… It has been reported from the Prophet (saas) that: 'Two believers and two unbelievers have ruled over the world. The believers: Dhu'l-Qarnayn and Sulayman (as); the unbelievers are: Nemrud and Buhtunnasir. 'One from my Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet (saas)'s family) will come as the fifth who is Hazrat Mahdi (as).' Ibn Marduwayh reports from Ibn Abbas: 'The Companions of the Cave will be Hazrat Mahdi's (as) followers. According to the ulama (scholars) their remaining until this time is in order to give them the honor of being a part of the community of Muhammad (saas).'
It is reported in various accounts that the Prophet (saas) said: "The greatest war, the conquest of Constantinople when the antichrist comes forth will be in seven months.' In another account, this appears as 'seven years.' According to Abu Dawud, the account reading 'seven years' is more accurate than that reading 'seven months.' (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li-ashrat al-sa'ah, pp. 182-183)
There are various reports concerning Hazrat Mahdi's (as) term of rule. Depending on the accounts, this will last, five, seven or nine years. In some it is only seven years, and in others nine. One report says: at least five, at most nine.
It is narrated in some accounts as 19 years and a few months, in others as 20, in some as 24, in others as 30, and in still others as 40 years. He will spend nine of these 40 years at peace with the Greeks [Rum]. In his book Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar Ibn Hajar al-Haythami says:
'These accounts may all be true in terms of his appearance and strength.' We may confirm these words of Ibni Hajar's from various perspectives. The first is that the Prophet (saas) has imparted many tidings to his community, and especially to his Ahl al-Bayt. He has described how they will be freed from all forms of oppression and torture. This depends on justice that can only be brought in over a long period of time. Such a short period as seven or nine years is not adequate for this. Second, just like Dhu'l-qarnayn (as) and Solomon (as), Hazrat Mahdi (as) will have dominion of the entire world. He will erect masjids and buildings in other countries and a period of nine years will again not suffice for the struggle he will wage and other matters he will engage in.
Third, life spans will become longer during his time. The prolongation of life spans means that his will be longer, too. Otherwise there is no point in people living longer.
As we know, the Prophet Jesus (as) will appear and slay the antichrist (his corruption). It is a fact that the Prophet Jesus (as) will not take over command from Hazrat Mahdi (as), because the leaders are from the Quraysh. Since they will both be present among people, the Prophet Jesus (as) then will be his Vizier, not his Commander. It is for these reasons that he will follow and perform the prayer (salat) behind Hazrat Mahdi (as). In fact, this hadith reported in Muslim from Jabir (ra) are evidence of this: When he performs the prayer (salat) the Prophet Jesus (as) will say: 'As a blessing on this Community from Allah some of you are the commanders of others. As reported in some accounts: 'Hazrat Mahdi (as), only he will lead the prayer (salat) for the people, and then Jesus (as) will be Imam,' report is not an obstacle for this. Because his [Hazrat Mahdi's (as)] being the Imam and Commander is definite, it is proper for him to allow the Prophet Jesus (as) to be the Imam and lead prayers (salat). Succession of his virtue is permissible, such that the virtuous is other than the Quraysh!' (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li-ashrat al-sa'ah, p. 185)
... This blessed hadith of the Prophet (saas) sheds light on this so well:
'Although your Imam (head of state) is one of you, what will become of you when the son of Mary [the Prophet Jesus (as) descends among you]? The words that 'Although your Imam is one of you…' have removed the apprehension that 'A Just Judge' would mean leadership (imamate). Because when the Prophet Jesus (as) comes, he will adhere to the law of the Prophet Muhammad (saas). The meaning of leadership here is not leading a prayer (salat). Success is by Allah… (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li-ashrat al-sa'ah, p. 186)
M. Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi
Know that al-Mahdi (as) must certainly appear. But he will not appear until the world becomes full of tyranny and injustice, then he will fill it with justice and equity; and if there is no more than one day remaining from (the appointed age of) the world, Allah will elongate that day to enable this successor [Muslims' spiritual leader] to rule. And he is from the progeny of the Messenger of Allah (saas), from the children of Fatimah.
He will distribute the wealth equally and will do justice to (his) subjects. A man will come to him and say, 'Give to me, O Mahdi.' And there will be goods before him, and Hazrat Mahdi (as) will forthwith fill his robe with the goods in front of him, and he will take away all he can carry. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear at a time where there are no prophets to lead people ... (Because of his blessings) a man who would be ignorant, coward and miser in the evening will become learned, brave and generous in the morning. Help (of Allah) will walk in his front. His rule will last five, seven or nine years. He will follow in the footsteps of the Messenger of Allah (saas), and he will commit no mistake; Allah guides him to the truth in a way he does not see. He takes every task upon himself. He will raise up the weary, and help the weak. His action will be according to his words, and his words according to his deeds, and he will know that he will be a witness. Allah will purify him in one night. He will capture the Greek city (Istanbul) with the taqbir. And at this point there will be 70,000 of the sons of Ishak with him at this point.
He will uphold religion, and he will breathe the spirit back into Islam. He will reinvigorate Islam after its degradation and bring it back to life after its death.
He will manifest the religion as it is in reality.
Thus in his time religion will attain its true identity in a purified form. there will not remain but the (original) pure religion. He will oppose the schools of the ulema in many of his rulings. They will therefore keep away from him. Because they will imagine that Allah will leave no reviver of the law after their imams...
The common people of the Muslims and the greater part of the elite among them will rejoice in him. He will have Divine men upholding his call and aiding him in his victory; they are the followers. They will bear the burdens of (his) government and help him carry out all the details of (the duty) Allah has imposed on him. The Prophet Jesus (as), son of Mary, will come down to him, near the white minaret in the eastern part of Damascus. The imam will be pulled back, and the Prophet Jesus (as) will pass to the fore and lead people in prayer. He will command people with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saas), he will break the cross [annul the mistaken Christian belief that the Prophet Jesus (as) was killed] and kill the swine [warn people that eating pork is harmful and remove interest in its consumption]. And al-Mahdi will die clean and pure.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will go into occultation, till comes the known (i.e. appointed) time. His martyrs will be the most auspicious of martyrs, and the people he trusts, his ministers, will be the most trustworthy of people.
Allah will appoint as his ministers a group (of spiritual men) whom He has kept hidden for him in the secret recessed of His Unseen. Allah has acquainted (these followers), through unveiling and immediate witnessing, with the (Divine) realities and the contents of Allah's Command concerning His servants. They follow in the footsteps of those men among the Companions (of the Prophet [saas]) who sincerely fulfilled what they had pledged to Allah. These followers are from the non-Arab peoples; none of them is Arab, although they speak only Arabic. And they have a guardian, not of their kind, who never disobeys Allah at all; he is the most elect of the followers and the most excellent of (the Mahdi's) Trusted Ones.
Especially these ministers are the true Knowers who really know what is There (in the Divine Reality). As for the Mahdi himself, … he has a political policy. One distinguishing feature of these ministers is that they will never be defeated in battle. For example, they will capture the Greek city, Istanbul, by means of the takbir alone. One third of the ramparts will collapse with the first takbir, one third with the second and the remaining wall with the third. They will thus capture the city without using swords and weapons. This is the exact truth, the brother of victory.
The totality of what he needs to have performed for him by his followers are nine things; there is not a tenth, nor can they be any fewer. These things are;
• Penetrating vision
• Understanding the Divine address when it is delivered
• The knowledge of how to translate from Allah
• Appointing the (various) ranks of the holders of authority
• Mercy in anger
• The forms of (spiritual) sustenance needed by the ruler
• Knowledge of the interpenetration of things
• Striving to one's utmost and going to any length to satisfy the needs of mankind
• Possessing the knowledge of the Unseen that he requires for this engendered world in particular during a particular period of time
Allah informs Hazrat Mahdi (as) about (each event) before it occurs. Because he needs to be ready for each event beforehand.
He is Divinely protected (ma'sum) from personal opinion (ra'y) and analogy (qiyas) in Religion. It is unlawful to behave in that way. For (the use of) analogy by whoever is not a prophet amounts to passing judgment on Allah concerning the Religion of Allah on the basis of something that person does not (really) know. If He had wanted to do that He would have clearly stated it through the voice of His Messenger.
In addition, our Prophet (saas) never said "He follows in the trace of my footsteps, and he makes no mistake" about any of the imams. He only said that about Hazrat Mahdi (as). He revealed his innocence, his succession and the innocence in his rulings. (Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah, 366. Vol. 3, p. 327-328)
According to Shuayib ibn Khalid's account from Abu Ishaq, Hazrat Ali looked at his son Hasan and said, "My son is a sayyid as the Messenger of Allah named him. Very soon, a man from his descendant will come who will be called by the name of our Prophet. His good conduct will resemble him but his appearance will not." (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, 1/38)
The Prophet (saas) said: If only one day of this world remained, Allah would lengthen that day (according to the version of Za'idah), till He raised up in it a man who belongs to me or to my family whose father's name is the same as my father's, who will fill the earth with equity and justice as it has been filled with oppression and tyranny (according to the version of Fitr). Sufyan's version says: The world will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man of my family whose name will be the same as mine. (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, 1/39; Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 36, 4269; Tirmidhi, 'Fitan', 52. H. 2231)
Another account says: "If only one day of this world remained, Allah would lengthen that day, till a man who belongs to my family whose name is similar to mine takes charge of the affairs of the world …" (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, 1/39. Tirmidhi, 'Fitan', 52. H. 2231)
The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: There will be in my community a Mahdi, who will reign for seven years, or eight years or nine years. My community will receive such benefits which they had never before experienced. The skies will be opened up for them. The earth will not withhold anything of its vegetation. A person will stand up and say, "O Mahdi! Give me." He will say to the man, "Take!" (as much as you please). (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, 1/42; Ibn Majah, Fitan, 34, H. 4083)
The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: "Al-Mahdi is from my community; he will be born and live to rule five or seven or nine years. (If) one goes to him and says: 'Give me (a charity),' he will fill one's garment with what one needs." (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, 1/43; Tirmidhi, Fitan, 53, H. 2232)
Ibni Kathir says that this is a hasan (good) hadith. This hadith was narrated by the Prophet (saas), and indicates that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will remain for a maximum of nine years, and that the shortest period will be five or seven years. It is probable that he will be the Successor [spiritual leader] who distributes goods in abundance. Then again, it is Almighty Allah who knows all things best. There will be much fruit in his time, agricultural production will exceed demand, and there will be an abundance of goods. No power will be able to resist this in that time, faith will rule upright, and goodness and auspiciousness will be permanent and continual. (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, 1/43, 44)
'Halef ibn Walid, Abbad ibn Abbad and Halid ibn Sa'd related this to us. This from Zawat Abu al-Wadak and he reported from Abu Said that Abu Said stated: 'A man said: I swear by Allah that no man became our leader who was not worse than the last.' At this, Abu Said stated that he said: 'Had I heard nothing from the Prophet (saas) I would also have spoken in the same way. I heard the Prophet (saas) say: A commander will come from among your leaders, and he will so distribute goods that there will be beyond counting. A man will come to him asking for goods, and he will tell him to take them. The man who comes will spread out his clothes, and goods will be filled in there. And the Prophet (saas) described the situation of this man at that time by spreading out a thick woollen cloth he was on top of and gathering the corners of this together, he said this was how the man would hold and take away those goods. (Ibn Kathir, 'Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, 1/44)
The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: 'We, the children of Abdulmuttalib, are the chiefs of the people of Paradise. Myself, Hamza, Ali, Jafer, Hasan, Hussein and the Mahdi (as). (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya Wa An-Nihaya, 1/44; Ibn Majah, Fitan, 34, H. 4087)
In a hadith from Abu Dawud reported by Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, our Prophet (saas) stated:
- Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be in my Ummah. If his time is short he will rule for seven years, and if it is not short, then for nine years. Goods (wealth) will increase in Hazrat Mahdi's (as) time. He will have much treasure with him. Someone will say:
- O Mahdi, help me (a little, and he will reply:
- Take (as much as you want, as much as you can carry).
Another hadith from Abu Dawud's account says:
- Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be of my stock, and will have a broad forehead.
Narrated Abu Sa'id al-Khudri:
- Severe calamity will befall my people during the Last Days. It will be a calamity which, in severity, shall be unprecedented. It will be so violent that the earth with injustice and corruption will shrivel for its inhabitants. The believers will not find refuge from oppression. At that time Allah will send a man from my family to fill the earth with justice and equity just as it is filled with injustice and tyranny. The dwellers of the heavens and the earth will be pleased with him [Hazrat Mahdi (as)]. The earth will bring forth all that grows for him, and the heavens will pour down rains in abundance. He will live among the people for seven or nine years. From all the good that Allah will bestow on the inhabitants of the earth, those alive will desire that those who have already passed away should have been alive to enjoy this prosperity.
In a hadith narrated by Abu Dawud says the Prophet (saas) said:
If only one day of this world remained, Allah would lengthen that day (according to the version of Za'idah), till He raised up in it a man who belongs to me or to my family whose father's name is the same as my father's and whose name will be the same as mine.
Imam Tirmidhi narrated this hadith, calling it true and authentic.
In the same way, in the hadith related by Tirmidhi our Prophet (saas) stated:
Even if no more than a single day remained in this world, Almighty Allah will prolong that day to allow someone from my Ahl Al-Bayt to assume the leadership of people. And he will have (helping) angels before him and Islam will appear (in all its majesty). There will be so much in Hazrat Mahdi's (as) treasury that someone will come to him and say:
- O Mahdi, help me. And Hazrat Mahdi (as) will place as much money as he can carry in his robe.
In a hadith narrated by Hafiz Abu Nuayim, the Messenger of Allah (saas) said:
Hazrat Mahdi (as) is from our Ahl al-Bayt, no doubt Allah will enforce his appearance within a night – or in two days.
There will be (days of) confusion, corruption and fear in the Maghrib. Hunger and high costs of living will spread. Corruption will spread, and some people will feed off others. At that time, one of the sons of Fadima, the glorious daughter of the Messenger of Allah (saas) will appear from the furthest part of the land of the Maghrib. That person is Hazrat Mahdi (as) who will arise in the End Times. And the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as) is the first of the portents of the End Times.
In the hadith related by Imam Shuraik the Prophet (saas) stated that the sun would be eclipsed twice during the month of Ramadan before the appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Allah knows the truth.
In a hadith narrated by Ibn Majah and taken from Abu Hurairah (ra), our Prophet (saas) stated:
Even if no more time than a single day remains to this world, Allah the Great and Glorious will certainly prolong that day so that a person from my family can arise and possess Mount Daylam (rising above Marwah in Mecca), or the land of Daylam, and the city of Istanbul and Rome. This hadith is completely reliable.
Afterwards, the army of Hazrat Mahdi (as) will reach the Golden Church and take possession of the great and plenty (valuable, precious) treasures inside it. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will take these and distribute them fairly and equitably among Muslims. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will then lay hands on the Ark of the Covenant inside the Church that contains the iron-tipped stave (rod) of the Prophet Jesus (as) and the Rod of the Prophet Moses (as). That rod of the Prophet Moses (as) descended to earth when the Prophet Adam (as) was expelled from Paradise. Later on, the Roman Emperor Kaiser seized that Ark of the Covenant in Bayt al-Maqdis (in Jerusalem) and took everything of value (valuable, precious) inside it and took them to the Golden Church. Those pieces have been kept in the Golden Church up until now. Eventually, Hazrat Mahdi (as) will take them from there once again. (Ash-Sharani, Mukhtasar Tazkirah al-Qurtubi, pp. 432-448)
Ibn Hajar Al Makki
All the hadiths referring to the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as), that he will be descended from the line of our Prophet (saas), that he will rule the world for seven years, that he will fill the world with justice and how he will come together with the Prophet Jesus (as), assist him in slaying the antichrist (corruption) at the gate (of Ludd) in Palestine, serve this Community as its imam, and how the Prophet Jesus (as) will perform the prayer (salat) behind him, have achieved absolutely trustworthy status from transmission from a large number of narrators. All these points listed are the most important features of the life of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
The complexion of Hazrat Mahdi (as) is of Arab (white mixed with red) and his body is of Israelite. There is a mole shining like a star on his right cheek. The peoples of the earth and sky and even the birds, will be delighted with his rule and happy with his succession.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will resemble one of the Children of Israel, he will bring forth treasures from the earth and conquer the world of heresy.
People will swear allegiance to him will between the Corner and the Station of Abraham [near the Kaaba]. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be so merciful that in his day not a single person's nose will bleed.
His beard will be thick and plentiful.
His teeth will be bright.
He will give large amounts, without even counting, when he distributes goods and property.
Such corruption will appear that no one will be preserved of and this will immediately spread from where it had been to elsewhere, and this will continue until a caller will cry from the sky and say, 'People, your commander is now Hazrat Mahdi (as).'
In the same way that Allah willed and Islam commenced with our Prophet (saas) it will come to an end with Hazrat Mahdi (as).
A world filled with cruelty and oppression will overflow with justice after his coming.
He will be sent at a time of various earthquakes.
In his time, both the good and the bad of the Community will enjoy a great many blessings so many that have never been seen before. Although there will be much rain, not a drop will be wasted, and the soil will be plentiful and productive without requiring a single seed.
When Hazrat Mahdi (as) appears there will be a turban on his head, and a herald will cry out; 'This is Hazrat Mahdi (as), the caliph of Allah [Muslims' spiritual leader]. Obey him.'
Our Prophet (saas) said; 'When you see banners arise from the side of Khorasan, join them, though you have to crawl over snow, because among them is Hazrat Mahdi (as), the caliph of Allah [Muslims' spiritual leader] .'
He will come at a time when that corruption manifests itself, and his piety will be unmatched.
He will [spiritually] capture Constantinople and Mount Daylam.
Even a single word spoken against Islam will offend him.
There will be great corruption before Hazrat Mahdi (as) in which there is widespread slaughter.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will not emerge unless innocent people are massacred, and he will appear when those on earth and in the sky can no longer put up with such killings. When Hazrat Mahdi (as) comes, people will embrace him with love and affection.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear after great corruption, when all forbidden things are regarded as lawful. The succession will come to him while he is sitting at home, and he will be the most auspicious of all men in his time.
Before the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as), there will be a great happening in Medina when even black stones will disappear in blood. In this event, the killing of a woman will be as easy as waving a whip. And this event will spread two kilometres when eventually people will swear allegiance to Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Before the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as), trade and roads between nations will be severed, and strife between people will increase. Scholars from various countries will set out, unknown to one another, in order to seek Hazrat Mahdi (as), and each scholar will be accompanied by up to 310 people. Eventually they will all meet in Mecca. And when they ask one another, 'Why have you come here?' they will all reply: 'We are looking for Hazrat Mahdi (as) who will put an end to this corruption and conquest Constantinople, because we have learned his name and those of his mother, father and army.'
Allah will fill the hearts of all people with affection towards him. Then he will walk with a people who are lions by day and devout believers by night.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will leave no bid'at (adoption of some rituals or innovations on the grounds that they are essential components of Islam, although they violate the teachings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah) and will restore life to the Sunnah of our Prophet (saas). He will [spiritually] conquer Constantinople and the mountains of China and Daylam, and this will persist for seven years. However, each year of his will be the equivalent of 20 of your years. Then Almighty Allah will do that He wills.
In his time, the wolf will play with the sheep, and snakes will do no harm to children. A man will sow a handful of seed and reap 700 handfuls. Hypocrisy, usury, adultery and alcohol will disappear, life spans will be prolonged, and security will not be impaired. The evil will perish and nobody will be left to bear ill-will towards our Prophet (saas).
He will not appear until a sin emerges from the sun.
His commanders are the most auspicious of men.
The world will be filled with security, and even a few women will be able to go on the hajj (pilgrimage) with no men accompanying them.
Widespread corruption that seems unlikely to ever end will break out, and this will continue until three cries will be heard from the sky, saying; 'The commander is Hazrat Mahdi (as). That is the truth' is heard three times from the sky.
He will not come until no successor will be left on earth whose name is known of.
Before his coming, a shining star will be seen from the east.
The moon will be eclipsed twice during Ramadan.
A voice from the sky will call out his name and even people asleep in the east and the west will hear that voice and wake up.
During the [spiritual] capture of Constantinople, he will plant a banner while performing the ablutions for the morning prayer (salat) the sea will part in two and recede from him and Hazrat Mahdi (as) will cross to the other shore, following the path that opens up. Then he will plant another flag and say: 'People, take heed. In the same way that the sea opened up for the Children of Israel, so it has opened up for us.' Then all will recite the taqbir (Allah is Great) again and again, and with the twelfth taqbir, the city's 12 towers will fall. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi `Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar, p. 15-75)
Ali Ibn Abd-Al Malik Husam Al-Din Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi
Allah will place affection for him in people's hearts. He will then join a group of people who are lions by day and devout believers by night.
Abu `Amr al-Dani narrated from Abu Qatade. He said: When blood is spilt people in strife will come to Hazrat Mahdi (as) as he sits at home and will say, "Rise up for us now." He will decline, but will eventually rise after being threatened with death. Thereafter no blood will be shed.
(In his time) neither the sleeping is awakened nor is any blood shed.
Ahmad, Ibn Abu Shayba, Ibn Majah and Abu Nuaym ibn Hammad relate
from Hazrat Ali (ra) in the book "Kitab al-Fitan" that the Prophet (saas) said: Hazrat Mahdi (as) is one of my house. Allah will mature him in one night.
Al-Tabarani has related in his "al-Mu'jam al-Kabir" and from Abu Naim Ibn Masud. He said that the Messenger of Allah (saas) stated: A child of my house bearing my name and whose moral values are my moral values will appear and fill the world that had been filled with cruelty with justice.
His beard is thick, his teeth are bright, there is a mole on his face. He has the sign of the Prophet (saas) on his shoulder. He will appear with the camelhair standard of the Prophet (saas). That standard has four corners and is unstitched, and it is black in color. There is brightness on it. Never having been unfurled since the death of the Messenger of Allah (saas), it will be opened when Hazrat Mahdi (as) appears. Allah will send three thousand angels to assist Hazrat Mahdi (as), and those angels will strike those who oppose him in the face and on the back. He will be sent when he is aged between thirty and forty (at the age of forty).
Ibn Abi Shayba reported from Abi Djald that he said: Sedition will be seen, and other sedition will follow and the first will spur the last to conflict with swords, after which the succession [spiritual leadership] will come to Hazrat Mahdi (as), the most auspicious of men, as he sits at his home.
Abu `Amr al-Dani reported from Salama ibn Zufar and said: One day it was said near Hudhayfa that Hazrat Mahdi (as) had appeared. He said: If he emerges, though among you are the people of Hazrat Muhammad (saas) then you have found happiness. It is certain that because of the evils those people encounter Hazrat Mahdi (as) will not appear until he is the most beloved of men.
Kaza (Abu Na'im ibn Hammad) reported from Abu Hurairah (ra), He said that: The oath of allegiance to Hazrat Mahdi (as) will not be taken until Almighty Allah is openly denied.
In his "Kitab al-Fitan" Abu Naim ibn Hammad reported from Hazrat Ali (ra) by way of a reliable account from Muslim. He said: There are four seditions. The sedition of abundance, the sedition of scarcity, a repeated sedition and calling out for gold. Then one from the line of the Prophet (saas) will appear and Allah will improve human affairs by his hand.
Nuaym reported from Kaab al-Ahbar. He said: Before the appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as) a bright-tailed star will be born from the East.
Abu `Amr al-Dani reported from Shahr ibn Hawshab (ra). He said that the Messenger of Allah (saas) stated: There will be a voice in Ramadan, a noise in Shawwal, and war between the tribes in the month of Dhu al-Qa`dah. Pilgrims will be despoiled. There will be a war in Mina in which many will die, to such an extent that so much blood will flow as to leave the stones there in a lake of blood.
Naim reported from Shurayk: He said I have heard that: There will be two eclipses of the Moon in Ramadan before the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Everyone will speak solely of him, drink of his love, and speak of nothing but him.
Naim ibn Hammad and Abul Hasan Kharbi reported from Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas (ra) in the first part of their work Kharbiyat. He said: Hazrat Mahdi (as) will not appear until the Sun rises as a sign.
Naim ibn Hammad and al-Hakim reported from Amr ibn Shu'ayb, and he from his father and his father from his grandfather: The Messenger of Allah (saas) stated:
In the month of Dhu al-Qa`dah, the tribes will wage war, pilgrims will be kidnapped, and there will be bloody wars. Their master (Mahdi) will be reluctant and eventually as many people as were at Badr will make oath of allegiance on him, albeit against his will, between the Rock and the Pillar. And the peoples of Earth and sky will approve of him.
Great cities will be ruined, and it will be as if they had not existed the day before.
Sufyani and his army will attack five numerous peoples.
Sheikh Mansoor Ali Nasif
Sheikh Mansoor Ali Nasif writes Al-Taj'ul Jami'lil Usul:
"Let it be known that it is a narrated event by all Muslims in every era, that at the end of time a man from the family of the Prophet (saas) will, without fail, make his appearance and will strengthen Islam and spread justice; Muslims will follow him and he will gain domination over the Muslim realm. He will be called al-Mahdi (as). After that, the antichrist will emerge, and the Messiah [the Prophet Jesus (as)] and either kill the antichrist or help Hazrat Mahdi (as) to do so.'"
The hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as) have been narrated by a group of leading and auspicious members of the companions. Some of the great hadith scholars, Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, al-Tabarani, Abu Ya'la, al-Bazzaz, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and al-Hakim have reported them. (Ahmet Faruk, Ka'be Baskini ve Mehdilik [The Attack on the Kaaba and the Mahdi], p. 21)
"His name is Muhammed, his father's name is Abdullah. He is a just imam, a pure guide and an absolute mujaddid, the successor of the time (Muslims' spiritual leader) descended from Hazrat Fadima.. Allah will create and send him when He wishes. He will strengthen Islam with him. Under his rule, there will be no enmity between two people, or even between two animals; every believer will be a loyal wali (saint), every irreligious one a believer of Allah, every atheist a loyal scholar. He will enrich all Muslims with his many conquests and spoils. He will form a group with the Prophet Jesus (as), and the Prophet Jesus (as) will eliminate the antichrist (tribulation caused by him) and lift the jizyah [capitation tax] from the dhimmis and accept the faith of those entering Islam." (Kadizade, "Amantu Sharhi," p. 358)
Abd Al-Hamid Ibn Abi Al-Hadid Al-Mu'tazili
From this extract from the Imam Ali, (Hazrat Mahdi (as)] is he who will appear from the sons of Muhammad towards the end of the time … Because all Muslim sects are agreed that "the world will not come to an end until he appears." (Nahj al-Balaghah, Vol. 3, pp. 434, 435)
Ibrahim Halveti of Kusadasi
In his letters the great mystic Ibrahim Halveti of Kusadası reported that Hazrat Mahdi (as) would soon appear and perform his duty:
"The present time is the precursor of the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as) (may his grave be hallowed). In the time of his coming there will be robbers and military expeditions of behalf of Islam. For the moment his appearance anywhere will not assist the continuation of the custom. 23 Muharram 1260/1844.
... Again when those who follow the antichrist during the 40 years of Hazrat Mahdi's (as) struggle at his appearance and the antichrist and his fitna (tribulation) are destroyed by that struggle two by two, and the Prophet Jesus (as) changes that religious order 1260/1844. (Yasar Nuri Ozturk, Ibrahim Halveti of Kusadası, pp. 204-212, 1982)
Muhammad Ibn Mahmud Al-Hafizi Al-Bukhari Al¬-Naqshbandi, Known As Khwaja Parsa
Muhammad ibn Mahmud al-Hafizi al-Bukhari alNaqshbandi, one of the great scholars and mystics of the 8th and 9th centuries (Hijri), collected together the hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as), devoting a long section of his work Fasl al-khitabto the subject.
"In Al Jami Al Usul, it is cited as one of the signs and portents of the Last Day: according to the account by Jabbir regarding Messiah (as) and Hazrat Mahdi (as), the Messenger of Allah (saas) said;
- A group of my community will struggle as victorious until the Day of Judgment in the cause of truth. At that time, the Prophet Jesus (as) will descend and the commander of the Muslims will say to him, 'Lead us in the prayer (salat).' And he will say to him: 'No, as a blessing to this community, Allah has made each one of you commanders of the others." This hadith was narrated by Muslim.
- In the volume "Ashrat al-Sa'ah" of the Sharh as-Sunnah, he narrates of Hazrat Mahdi (as). He says that Abu Sa'id al-Khudri narrated the Messenger of Allah (saas) as saying, in reference to a trouble that would afflict this community:
- Allah will send a man from my Ahl al-Bayt to fill the earth with justice and equity just as it is filled with injustice and tyranny at a time when people will not find refuge from oppression due to the occurrence of that trouble. The dwellers of the heavens and the earth will be pleased with him. The earth will bring forth all that grows for him, and the heavens will pour down rains in abundance. From all the good that Allah will bestow on the inhabitants of the earth, the dead will wish to come to life again. He will live among the people for seven, or eight or nine years…
- In his book "Dala'il an-Nubuwwa" [Miracles of Hazrat Muhammad (saas)]," Imam Jafar al-Mustaghfiri an-Nasafi reports an account regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) going back to Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (ra); the Messenger of Allah (saas) stated:
- The days and nights will not pass until a man from my Ahl al-Bayt live in it. His name is like my name and his father's name is like my father's name. He will fill the world with fairness and justice just as it had been filled by harm and transgressions. ... (Muhammad ibn Mahmud al-Hafizi al-Bukhari al-Naqshbandi, Fasl al-Khitab, pp. 553-557)
Ismail Haqqi Al-Burusawi
... it is therefore revealed in the Qur'an that: "He responds to the oppressed when they call on Him…" (Surat an-Naml, 62) The reference is a declaration of acceptance of prayers by Allah when the time of necessity comes. And it is for these reasons that in every century a person has appeared to fully eliminate all fierce calamity. AND HAZRAT MAHDI (AS) NEEDS TO APPEAR SINCE THE STRIFE IN THE WORLD INCREASES IMMENSELY. THE POWER OF THE DOCTOR IS PROPORTIONATE TO THE STRENGTH OF THE DISEASE, AFFLICTION, TROUBLE OR SCOURGE. AND THOSE WHO ARE PRESENT AT THE TIME WILL KNOW THE FULL SCALE OF THE DISEASE, AFFLICTION, TROUBLE AND SCOURGE AFFLICTING THE WORLD IN THE END TIMES... (Ismail Haqqi al-Burusawi, Commentary of Mathnawi, p. 250)
In his Commentary of Mathnawi, Ismail Haqqi al-Burusawi, one of the greatest spiritual guides of the 17th century, draws particular attention to the End Times and to Hazrat Mahdi (as) who will appear in the End Times.
Burusawi states that the time when Hazrat Mahdi (as) appears will be full of disorder and that he will appear at a time of intense and severe physical and spiritual sickness. In addition, his reference to THE POWER OF THE DOCTOR IS PROPORTIONATE TO THE STRENGTH OF THE DISEASE, AFFLICTION, TROUBLE OR SCOURGE suggests that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will possess great knowledge, bestowed by Allah, that will represent a complete cure to this spiritual sickness and intense disorder, the like of which have never been seen before. In addition, Burusawi indicates that this time had not yet come in his own day, the 17th century, in the words, "THOSE WHO ARE PRESENT AT THE TIME WILL KNOW THE FULL SCALE OF THE DISEASE, AFFLICTION, TROUBLE AND SCOURGE AFFLICTING THE WORLD IN THE END TIMES..."
Ali Haydar Efendi
Ali Haydar Efendi points to the year Hijri 1400, or 1980s AD, for the appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as):
"There are various accounts regarding Efendi Baba's [Ali Haydar Efendi's] wish to extend his greeting and oath of allegiance to Hazrat Mahdi (as). We have heard it from the dervish. A representative of the late Hasan Burkay, one of the great scholars who studied with Efendi Baba, related that Efendi Baba pointed to the '80s as the date of the appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as)." (http://www.ihvanforum.org/islam-i-hayat/77066-mehdi-ile-ilgili-kim-ne-dedi/)
However, some people reject this statement by Ali Haydar Efendi and relate an event in order to support their own views. According to this, Ismail Hakki Bursevi took a passage from Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi in his commentary Tafsir Ruh al-Bayan and gave a date regarding the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as). (Efendi Baba) Ali Haydar Efendi added a note alongside this account, saying "But what happened?" On the basis of this note, some people claim that (Efendi Baba) Ali Haydar Efendi did not think that Hazrat Mahdi (as) would come in Hijri 1400. The fact is that (Efendi Baba) Ali Haydar Efendi was born in Hijri 1287 and died in Hijri 1380. In other words, he never saw the Hijri 1400s. Therefore, with his note he added to Ismail Haqqi al-Burusawi's Tafsir Ruh al-Bayan, written in the 1700s, Ali Haydar Efendi revealed the erroneous nature of the view that Hazrat Mahdi (as) would come in those years or before. In other words, with that note he confirmed his view that Hazrat Mahdi (as) would come in Hijri 1400.
Sheikh Nazim Adil Al-Qubrusi Al-Haqqani
Our Master's century is the most honorable of all honorable centuries. Why? Because this is the time in which our Master lives. It is the century when all the shames of all demons, antichrists, those who block the path of Allah, unbelievers, the hypocrites come to an end, and HAZRAT MAHDI (AS) SHALL BE READY IN THE TWO THOUSANDS AND THE PROPHET JESUS (AS) SHALL RETURN TO EARTH FROM THE SKY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY.
THAT IS OUR BELIEF NOW. MORE THAN HALF THAT CENTURY WILL ACQUIRE HONOR THROUGH THE PRESENCE OF HAZRAT MAHDI (AS) AND THE PROPHET JESUS (AS). Be alert! (Sheikh Nazim Adil al-Qubrusi al-Haqqani / Cyprus)
IT IS AGREED THAT HAZRAT MAHDI (AS) WILL COME IN THE TWO THOUSANDS. In this way, the true faith, Islam will emerge. (Sheikh Nazim Adil al-Qubrusi al-Haqqani / Lefke)
Allah's will wished them to enter under the heavenly light. (Speaking of the Americans.) Our Master has told us of the last days before the Day of Judgment. And what he said will happen. (Islam will spread to the entire world.)
OUR CENTURY IS THE CENTURY OF HAZRAT MAHDI (AS). (Sheikh Nazim Adil al-Qubrusi al-Haqqani / Lefke)
Presenter: What can you tell us about the Hazrat Mahdi (as)?
Sheikh Nazim Adil al-Qubrusi: Hasten, o lord of time [Hazrat Mahdi (as)]. Hasten to rescue us; you are the glad tidings of our Prophet (saas). We hope that the Sayyid, the glad tidings of our Prophet (saas) will soon appear. (From an interview on MPL TV)
Sheikh Nazım: The lord of time is close at hand, insha'Allah. The coming of the lord of time is nigh, and the world will change. We are approaching the Day of Judgment. Our Master (saas) is the prophet of the End Times. 1500 years have passed from the line of our Prophet (saas). He said that if my Ummah progress toward the truth, Almighty Allah has given them one day of life…
One day in the sight of Almighty Allah is a thousand years. The life of my Ummah is 1.5 days, or 1500 years. We are now in Hijri 1400. Seventy years remain to the Day of Judgment. It is very close at hand. There are many signs, we seek refuge with Allah, and we must go through them safely." (From Sheikh Nazim Adil al-Qubrusi al-Haqqani's conversation)
This century will be the century of Islam. It is certain that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will come. Some people attach little importance to this. That is very wrong. I have heard it myself from many elders. There are many hadiths on the subject. Belief in the Mahdi (as) is that a great scholar and imam from the line of our Prophet (saas) will unite all Muslims before the Day of Judgment and strugglewith members of superstitious faiths (will wage an intellectual struggle against them). Then with the dominion of Islam, all superstitious faiths will lose all their existence in terms of knowledge and prestige… (From Nimetullah Hodja's interview with Feyz magazine)
The Views of Contemporary Writers and Commentators
The Appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as) and the Coming of the Prophet Jesus (as)
"On the basis of the hadiths regarding the Messiah and Hazrat Mahdi (as) and of the conviction of the Community, it may be said that belief in the return to earth of the Prophet Jesus (as) and the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as) is an expression of trust and confidence in our Prophet (saas)." 1
Hazrat Mahdi (as) Will Be Descended from Our Prophet (saas)
"It will be appropriate to cite examples of two hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as): 'Hazrat Mahdi (as) is from us, from the Ahl al-Bayt (family of the Prophet (saas)). Allah will bestow victory upon him in one night. Hazrat Mahdi (as) is one of the sons of Fatima (ra).' (Ibn Majah, al-Fitan, 34; Darimi, Mahdi, 1). 'Even if but one day were to remain to the end of this world, Allah will send a person from the Ahl al-Bayt to fill this world full of oppression with justice instead.' (Ahmad ibn Hanbal, II, 117-118).
As the work of His mercy, Almighty Allah, at times of degeneration in the community (when Muslim communities have degenerated), has sent a restorer (who purifies), a mujaddid (one who revives faith to its original), a glorious caliph (a spiritual leader of Islamic community), a qutb al-azam (who is the greatest leader in faith of his time, a spiritual pole), and a perfect teacher (superior guide), or a kind of Mahdi to eliminate this degeneration (prevent sedition) and to restore the faith of the ummah and preserve the religion of Islam.
Bediuzzaman who cites as an example such figures as Mahdi al-Abbasi (used as a comparison for successful people) in the political sphere, and Ghaus-ul-Azam (Abd al-Qadir Jilani, the greatest scholar of his time), Shah Naqshbandi (Muhammad Bahauddin, founder of the Naqshbandi order), aqtab al-arbaa (the people known as the four great Sunni scholars) and the 12 imams (the 12 caliphs descended from the line of Hazrat Ali (ra)) in the spiritual sphere, and says, "Since the law of Allah operates in this way, He will definitely send a luminous person at the time of the grievous mischief of the End Times as the greatest mujtahid (jurist who makes pronouncements when needed on the basis of verses and hadiths), the greatest mujaddid (reviver), also a ruler and Mahdi, a teacher (who guides people), and qutb al-azam (greatest religious leader of the time), and that person will be descended from the Ahl al-Bayt (the family of the Prophet [saas])." Bediuzzaman also answers the claims that the hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi (as) are weak (of doubtful authenticity,) and says, "Is there any matter that cannot be related to in some books? Some scholars have reported with destitution that even such a great hadith scholar as Ibn Jawzi narrated some trustworthy hadiths as doubtful. Every weak or doubtful hadith does not necessarily mean that it conveys a wrong message."2
After the Yoke Has Been Placed on the Ground
"We all have a very powerful hope along with our people. We trust in the Messenger of Allah (saas). The lord of the universe, the Prophet (saas) who at the head of the Ummah commanded the Companions (ra) has long since given us the glad tidings that after the yoke was placed on the ground (after being in despair) it would be lifted in the End Times. The Messenger of Allah (saas) has said that 'La ilaha illa Allah Muhammad Rasul Allah' [faith] will be restored to life, revived and will bear fruit across the entire world, and in this he told the truth."3
The Young Man We Await
"In speaking of the Conqueror; how lovely is that commander, a young commander aged 21-22. He sacrificed from his physical and spiritual feelings of manifestation. The great ruler was of the age of THE YOUNG MAN we await who will protect the values of the Qur'an in the 20th century."4
"The number of people who defied the world at Badr was 313. I read their names in entering your presence in important places like reading the names of the angels, I hope for intercession and then enter your presence. A person who was at Badr is so great in my understanding. Why great? Because they are nar-i beyza [white light] from head to toe. If there were 313 men like white light today, it is possible to have the dominion of the world, we hope, insha'Allah, that this vineyard, this garden, this orchard will produce these 300, these 313 people."5
It is narrated in the hadiths of our Prophet (saas) that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will have 313 followers.
It is narrated from Muhammad ibn Hanafi that: "Their numbers are those of the people of Badr. In the same way that those who went before could not surpass them, those who come after will not be able to catch them. Their numbers are the number of those who crossed the river with SAUL." (Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 57)
He will defy those around with 313 people under his command, like the soldiers at the battle of Badr, because these 313 people will worship at night and be heroes by day. (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li-ashrat al-sa'ah, p. 169)
There Is No Possibility of Denying the Hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi (as)
"In the four revered books of hadiths in the Al-Kutub As-Sittah; in al-Hakim's Mustadrak, in al-Bayhaqi and in al-Tabarani there are hadiths regarding the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as) that cannot possibly be denied. Bukhari and Muslim Sharif not only refer to this individual who will come by name, but they mention someone who will come and fill the world with justice. The same person referred to in Bukhari and Muslim is revealed to bear the name "Muhammad" in the others, or by the Prophet (saas) saying, "He will bear my name. There is exactly an agreement."6
When Those Suited to the Matter Come
"Glorious Muslim, I have drawn your attention to things that need to be said with various examples in order for you to advance and not to falter in this most holy duty, and I have sought to provide you means, and there is no need to admit this again. I am not the one whose work this is; we will continue this work, together with people like me, until he comes, that is how it appears. We will abandon this work when the right one comes, we are not those most suited to it. The ones who are merited will be the real interpreters of the truth and what is right and will restore our dead hearts to life. I hope for this with a mature sincerity, I await this from my Lord, but we shall continue to speak of it until that day."7
1) From the article, Where is the Messiah? Who is Hazrat Mahdi (as)? http://tr.fgulen.com/a.page/eserleri/kirik.testi/a12729.html
3) Ruh Ufku Serisi, 1st CD, Toward the Light, 7th cassette, Nil Yapımcılık A.Ş.
4) Ruh Ufku Serisi, 1st CD, The World of Our Hearts Conference, 1st Cassette, Nil Yapımcılık A.Ş.
5) Ruh Ufku Serisi, 5th CD, Justice Assembly Conference, 2nd cassette, Nil Yapımcılık A.Ş.
6) Conversations, Series B, 14th cassette, 1979
7) Conversations, Performance, 11th cassette, 11 January 1980
Hekimoglu Ismail (Omer Okcu)
In the same way that officials and soldiers have positions and ranks, so every Muslim has a spiritual position and rank. Omniscient Allah knows this. In fact, Allah, the Omniscient, bestows these positions and ranks. The All Knowing Allah reveals some of His Knowledge to some of His servants and these people are know as "ahl al-kashf" (the people of kashf) or popularly as workers of wonders. Wali [saint] is a general title given to them.
Not every guide can work wonders, and there are many guides unaware of their own spiritual rank. In order for the marvelous things a person does to be regarded as wonders, that person has to live in compliance with the Sunnah. Marvels produced by people who do not live in compliance with the Sunnah are known as "istihraj" [deductions], and these have nothing to do with wonders.
"Karamat" [working wonders]; if the means of service of a person who serves Islam are restricted in some way, his persistence in that service (by Allah's blessing) as a marvel is intended for him to strengthen the devotion of the people around him to Islam.
And there is also "ikram" [great blessing]. It appears to be like a wonder, but is not. For example, a religious Teacher answers a question of someone without actually being asked. The person concerned then says, "He read my mind," but the Teacher will know that this is "a great blessing of Allah" and he will give thanks for it. But he will not become proud and will not and must not regard himself as a worker of wonders...
Allah says He will sustain Islam until the Day of Judgment and sends servants to serve His religion; and they serve Islam.
People who serve Islam have various spiritual ranks. But the rank of Mahdi is the greatest of them all. In the same way that a general who wins a battle is promoted to field-marshal, so a guide who struggles against the Bediuzzaman is raised to the rank of Mahdi. So we must look for Hazrat Mahdi (as) in the time of the Bediuzzaman. But recognizing Hazrat Mahdi (as) or not is not as important as people imagine.
Since it is certain through the hadiths, the rank of Mahdi must not be denied.
But not recognizing him does not require responsibility. Because everyone who abides by the Sunnah is Hazrat Mahdi's (as) follower. But if someone who is close beside and sees Hazrat Mahdi (as) every day does not abide by the Sunnah, then he is in fact far removed from Hazrat Mahdi (as) spiritually and this world and the Hereafter will both be hell for him.
Our Prophet (saas) suffered great hardships for the salvation of mankind. Those who approach our Prophet (saas) in terms of his rank, also come close to him in terms of suffering, in other words suffer much hardship. But the most eminent figure of the End Times cannot be killed.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will do the exact opposite of the antichrist. The antichrist confuses truth with superstition, but Hazrat Mahdi (as) will distinguish between truth and superstition. He will show the truth as truth and superstition as superstition. The antichrist is a liar and deceives people. Hazrat Mahdi (as) tells what is right, the truth. The antichrist disseminates sin. Hazrat Mahdi (as) prohibits people from sin and leads them to enjoin the Sunnah. The antichrist depends (relies on, trusts) on diplomas, status, position and political power. He has much treasure. Hazrat Mahdi (as) depends on none other than Allah. He has no material power. He may have no diplomas, money, status, position or financial and military strength. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will do much despite the lack of means available to him, so that his supporters learn, understand and live by Islam by seeking refuge in Allah (against all the means of the antichrist).
In the same way that a gendarme officer who trusts the state can round up a whole village on his own, so every believer who can be a (spiritual) soldier of Allah can defy all forms of irreligion. Therefore, the most noteworthy element in Hazrat Mahdi's (as) work is his lack of physical means, or his bestowing no worth on physical means. Physical means are aims, not ends in themselves. The aim is divine approval of Allah.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will bring about Islamic Union and will bring all Muslims together. If a person bears a sign of being a Muslim, he will rule that he is a believer. He will look at everyone in terms of faith. Because being a believer means to have faith. According to the Qur'an, "Believers are brothers." Hazrat Mahdi (as) will base himself upon that verse, regard believers as brothers and advance toward Islamic Union.
A believer is one who has faith and a Muslim is one who lives by Islam.
Therefore, Hazrat Mahdi (as) will support the members of all sacred religions against the tide of irreligion. On the one hand, he aspires a billion Muslims will seek to rise up as one nation, and on the other hand he will make agreements with the Christians and seek to prevent the spread of irreligion and to protect Muslims and even Christians against it.
That being the case, the place of the antichrist is irreligion, and that of Hazrat Mahdi (as) is religion. Therefore, irreligion will clash (spiritually) with religion with all their might in the End Times; Islam will survive until the Day of Judgment. The Day of Judgment will not fall while a single believer remains. The Day of Judgment will break on the heads of the unbelievers, and that is why believers must persist in their faith.
There will be a price to pay for being a Muslim at the time of the antichrist, this condition is tribulation. But tribulations do not stem from religious devotion alone. All kinds of disasters may strike one, such as going mad, being crippled, suffering a traffic accident, having cancer, going broke or being dismissed. Only one tribulation is due to having "religious devotion", and that is a possibility, whether it comes or not ... It is irrational to have no fear of a hundred potential disasters and to only fear one that may come because of being "religious."
In the same way that thousands of problems are solved with the laws of physics, every verse of the Qur'an and every hadith is also a law, and many economic, administrative and governmental problems can be resolved with them. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will open the way of this and reveals the boundless meanings of the Qur'an.
The Holy Qur'an is itself a miracle. It is such a miracle that it turns people capable of all forms of evil away from committing evil and leads them to do all kinds of goodness instead.
This will be apparent in the supporters of Hazrat Mahdi (as). The Qur'an addresses all kinds of people in all ages and has made this world and the Hereafter a Paradise for them. In the same way that everyone picks those fruits he can reach, so everyone can benefit from the Qur'an. The supporters of Hazrat Mahdi (as) will include people of all ages and all cultures.
At times when man-made ideas spread, the Qur'an imposes its superiority over all ideas and Hazrat Mahdi (as) will answer all unanswered questions with definitive evidence.
Allah, Who creates the people that make computers, has programmed some of His servants' brains in such a way as to answer unanswered questions. This will reach the highest peak in the person of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
At a time when they draw Muslims with all their means away from Islam, the Holy Qur'an will tear down the walls around it and impose its own dominion. Some people will look at the superior moral values of Muslims and form their own contentment on the truth of the Qur'an... Some people will strengthen their faith with the verses of the Qur'an and by seeing their harmony and propriety. And some people will be amazed at the profound meaning of the verses and turn away from superstitious movements and toward the true faith.
These things will be much seen in the time of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
It was our Prophet (saas) who first told people of and interpreted the Holy Qur'an. When he would tell people about Islam in the House of Al-Arqam, he said nothing about the Persian and Byzantine Empires, the super powers of the day, and he read and discussed no book other than the Qur'an. The Companions (ra) who learned about Islam called everything not conforming to Islam superstitious, and drew strength from Islam and so Empires of Islam were raised on their spiritual shoulders.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear like a chief physician in his own day, and will diagnose the sickness. He will say that the cure lies in the Holy Qur'an. In the same way that a prescription tells us what medicine to take and the instructions say how it should be used... Every verse is a medicine.
Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear at a time of spiritual sickness among Muslims, and he will tell them what verse will solve what problem. And Muslims will begin to turn to the right path and will be cured. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will direct everyone's attention to the Holy Qur'an, to the hadiths and to the book of the universe that is compatible with human nature. He will so abide by the Sunnah that he will bring the humility of the Prophet (saas)'s way of living to his own age and will seek to be a role model for Muslims in all ways. Those who still seek to slander him will say, "He thinks he is the Prophet (saas)."
They will seek to discourage Hazrat Mahdi's (as) supporters by disparaging his mortal person. But in the same way they will be unable to harm him, so they will be unable to harm his supporters. Any harm arising will be negligible beside the giant scale of their services.
The Qur'an is our Prophet's (saas) greatest miracle. And the greatest miracle of the Qur'an is our Prophet (saas). The way that the Qur'an addresses people of all kinds of knowledge and in all times, even though our Prophet (saas) could not read and write, is significant evidence that it is the word of Allah. It is a miracle of the Qur'an how our Prophet (saas) came to have the loftiest moral values through adopting the moral values of the Qur'an. Saintly figures, masters, imams and scholars produced over the last 1400 years have spiritually signed up to the dominion of Islam. The significance of Hazrat Mahdi (as) will arise from his following the Sunnah and being virtuous. The moral virtues of his supporters will baffle the supporters of the antichrist. Many people tired of immorality will repent and line up alongside Hazrat Mahdi (as). Hazrat Mahdi (as) is one person, but his supporters will grow apace in numbers, and everyone will be amazed by this.
In the same way we have metaphysics, we also have metachemistry, metabiology and even metahistory. Researchers know that historic events are not random and do not happen by coincidence. Events may give rise to great men, or great men may give rise to great events... At the end of the day, in the same way that man cannot be his own work, neither can events come about spontaneously. Whoever created the atmosphere is He Who also created storms, and it is Allah Who does not let storms blow above a certain speed and Who rules the entire universe. Events of all kinds take place and serve within the order of the universe. There is order even in great disorder.
Events draw a time frame as they take place in the course of time. In other words, the number of events does not rise or fall over time. We can take the 14th Hijri century as an example, and the 15th century, so we can understand them both as 2 different periods.
We entered Hijri 1300 in 1882. Thus the 14th Hijri century began and continued until 1979. Let us now have a look at the personages who appeared on Earth in the 14th century. Your knowledge of history will remind you of what they did.
Soldiers such as the British Montgomery (1887), scientists such as Einstein (1879-1955), physicians such as Freud (1856-1939), novelists such as Russia's Maxim Gorky (1868-1936) and spies like Britain's Lawrence of Arabia (1888-1935) all played major roles in the 14th century.
These are people who took their places on the stage of history and strove with all their might against their opponents. They caused very great events to happen or played a role in very great events... By the 1980s we saw no more leaders dragging masses of people in their wake, as if suns were sunk and only stars remained. Because in 1980, we entered the 15th Hijri century. We were at the beginning of the century. The important figures of that century were still just children or in their youth... But the year two thousand is very important. The odd thing is that both the right and the left attach great importance to the millennium. Both sides have felt the force of events to come.
When these lines were being written, there was a struggle between capitalism and socialism, even in the Islamic world. One wonders if Islam will appear on the stage of history in terms of economics, governance or culture in year 2000?
As a matter of fact, the importance of the year 2000 goes beyond that: Either Islam will appear at the point of DOMINION or else people will lose their humanity and long for the Day of Judgment with all their hearts. Because near to the Day of Judgment, even the most evil person will long for the Day of Judgment, and the world will become uninhabitable because of evil people. People who abandon Islam do very little in the name of good but they accomplish big things in the name of evil... That is why people have lost their humanity and are so wretched.
Allah, Who gave order to the universe, has sent the order that is Islam for people. In the same way the Day of Judgment comes when the order of the universe will break down, so the Day of Judgment comes when the order of those people who do not belong to Islam will break apart.
But everyone must look to his own day of reckoning, his own death, before the Day of Judgment. Everyone will pass through the door of the tomb and be judged in the palace of the Hereafter and have to account for his own life. Sinners will go to hell, and those without sin, or who are forgiven, will go to Paradise. European civilization has impaired people's beliefs and eliminated belief in the Hereafter. Architects unaware of their selves' architecture have been produced, and the number of engineers unaware of their selves' engineer has grown. Since people think that everything they do is for their own profit in such a materialistic world, people have turned out to be wolves against one another. Belief in the Hereafter ensures that people are beneficial to one another, but how is that belief to be instilled? From that perspective, people preoccupied with the millennium and the Day of Judgment must not forget themselves, their death and the Hereafter if our world is to recover. (Hekimoglu Ismail (Omer Okcu), Musluman ve Para (Muslim and Money), Timas Publications, March 2005, (Türdav Publications, 1st edition, 1978)
Huseyin Hilmi Isik
"THE MAHDI:" Hazrat Mahdi (as) will come to Earth in the End Times. He will be descended from the Messenger of Allah (saas). He will meet with the Prophet Jesus (as), do away with schools of religious thought, leaving only his own, he will take over all places, there will be justice everywhere, the Companions of the Cave will waken and leave the cave, and they will be the followers of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Some naive people refer to some people they imagine to be great as Hazrat Mahdi (as). The Messenger of Allah (saas) has revealed the portents of Hazrat Mahdi (as). There are some two hundred portents in Ibn Hajar al-Haytami al-Makki's book (Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar - Portents of Awaited Mahdi) and in that of Jalaluddin as-Suyuti (Al-Burhan - The Evidence). Volume 2, page 297 of the Al-Futuhat al-Islamiyya says: "The awaited Mahdi will be descended from the line of Hazrat Fatima." He will appear in Mecca. At that time, Muslims will be without a caliph (they will not have a spiritual leader). He will be made caliph (spiritual leader), albeit unwillingly. (The date of his appearance, his age and lifespan are uncertain). The fact that there will be no successor (spiritual leader) when Hazrat Mahdi (as) appears and that those who declare themselves to be Hazrat Mahdi (as) are not actually so can be seen from this.
It is stated in several hadiths that "There will be a cloud around the Mahdi's head. An Angel from the cloud will say: This is the Mahdi, listen to his words!" In one hadith it is stated that "Of the people whose names you have heard, four people have ruled the world. Two were believers, and two were unbelievers. The two believers were Dhu'l-Qarnayn (as) and Solomon (as). The two unbelievers were Nimrod and Nebuchadnezzar. The fifth ruler of the world will be one of my children, the Mahdi." In another hadith it is stated that: "Before the Day of Reckoning, Almighty Allah will create one of my children, whose name is like mine and whose father's name is like my father's name, and he will fill the world with justice. The world will be filled with oppression before him, but will be filled with justice in his time."
In another hadith it is stated that:
"The People of the Cave will be Hazrat Mahdi's (as) followers, and Jesus (as) will descend from the sky in his time. Jesus (as) will be with Hazrat Mahdi (as) in his struggle against the antichrist. In the time of his reign, and contrary to all other times and calculations, there will be an eclipse of the Sun on the fourteenth day of Ramadan and of the Moon on the first night."
Therefore, let them be honest, did these signs exist or not in that man who died (and in the people they ignorantly imagined to be Hazrat Mahdi [as])? The Speaker of Truth (saas) has provided many more signs of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
In his book "Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi `Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar," Ibn Hajar al-Haythami has listed nearly 200 signs of the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as). How ignorant are those who imagine that others are Hazrat Mahdi (as) when the signs of Hazrat Mahdi (as) whose coming is foretold are in the open. May Almighty Allah permit them to see the truth! (The portents of Hazrat Mahdi (as) are also reported in Jalaluddin as-Suyuti's book al-'Arf al-Wardi fi Akhbar al-Mahdi, p. 60-61)
In letter 68, Vol. 2, of his "Rahmatullahi 'Alaih," Imam Rabbani says that in the hadith it is said that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will not come until heresy enfolds the world and until heresy and the unbelievers are everywhere. From this it can be seen that denial and heresy will spread all over before the coming of the Hazrat Mahdi (as), and that Muslims and Islam will be fragmented. (H. Hilmi Isik, Eternal Happiness, p. 350)
… But it is a fact that a mujaddid [reviver] who will establish the sovereignty of Allah all over the world will come. It makes no difference when this happens soon or very much later as he is the Imam Mahdi clearly described in the hadiths of the Prophet (saas). Various signs regarding him have been personally revealed by our Prophet (saas).
These signs have been set out by Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and in other books of hadiths. We would like to relate just one of these accounts here.
We believe that when the Imam Mahdi comes he will be the most ideal commander and leader of the time. By ideal I mean that he will be someone who knows all the facts of the age, who possesses a complete executive ability. I fear that the first to reject him will be none other than the conservative ulama [Muslim scholar] class and some Sufis. Because they will see that this person has nothing to do with Hazrat Mahdi (as) in their minds.
When Hazrat Mahdi (as) comes, he will seek to cleanse all the filth of the system of ignorance from Muslims' thoughts and beliefs and will reveal Islam in the purest form. He will strive to prevail Islam in all spheres. He will have no claim or case of his own, nor any constituted by himself. The system of ignorance will not hold back in the face of this and will strive with all its might to make "fallacious" prevail. Yet with the help of Allah, Muslims will emerge victorious from this great struggle for the truth and will vanquish the system of ignorance.
All Hazrat Mahdi's (as) endeavors for the true cause will be a means whereby Islam comes to rule, and an Islamic order will be established all over the world. It is wrong to think of this dominion of Islam solely in terms of a form of administration. Because, the dominion of Islam will take place in all spheres. At the end of this "everyone on earth and in the sky will be content," as it is stated in the hadith.
As Muslims, we wish to see the dominion of Islam. We may or may not see it; that is not what is important. What matters is to strive and labor to that end. If we imagine the commander of the final victory in our minds, we will see that there is no similarity between the imam of such a victory and the imam imagined by the public. It is beyond power not to be amazed at those who are astonished at the belief in the coming of such a leader… (Mawdudi, A Short History of the Revivalist Movements in Islam, pp. 52-55)
Mahmud Esa'd Cosan
… I told some of my friends: "Look, Hazrat Mahdi (as) is one of the portents of the End Times, and he will appear. People living in his day must go to him and be his follower, even crawling over ice!..."
"… We all of us have love for Hazrat Mahdi (as). We all wish to bind ourselves to Hazrat Mahdi (as)…" (Mahmud Esa'd Cosan, Guncel Meseleler [Current Issues])
Abu Sa`id al-Khudri (ra) relates from Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (ra) and Baverdi (ra). It is a matter set out in many hadiths with several witnesses. I shall set it out in brief. "O community of Muhammad (saas), Hazrat Mahdi (as) will come, hear the glad tidings." Hear the glad tidings of the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as), for such a Mahdi will come. What kind of person will come? "One from my family, from my line, someone from the tribe of the Quraysh." There are accounts he will be from the line of Hazrat Fatima (ra). There are other accounts. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear when Muslims are in dispute with one another and when they are rocked by spiritual earthquakes and are much in conflict with one another. He will rule the world and fill it with justice and truth. Before he establishes this rule, the world will be full of cruelty, harshness and oppression, but he will change that and fill it with truth and justice. Cruelty and oppression will vanish. He will be so liked, people will like him so much and be so content with him that even entities in the sky, angels and birds, and people and animals on the earth will be content with his reign. He will hand out goods unrestrainedly. They asked what unrestrainedly means. And he answered, "without limit." It means he will hand them out equally, treating nobody unfairly, handing goods out liberally. Everyone will have possessions and property through that generosity of the Mahdi's. He will fill the hearts of the community of Muhammad, of Muslims. Riches of the heart will come to Muslims. Everyone's heart and eye will be satisfied. There will be no more greed or thirst for possessions. He will give to all, plentiful goods such that nobody will have any more greed, in other words, he will satisfy them with that justice. Because plenty will come with that justice. He will hasten to the assistance of all and will leave none behind. This generosity and justice will embrace all. And it will be such that he will tell a herald to announce that anyone in need should come to him.
Even though he declares that, nobody will come because everyone will be satisfied and possess their own goods. And nobody will come. Only one man will come and ask for goods. He [Hazrat Mahdi (as)] will say, go to the minister in charge of my treasury, the person in charge of goods, the civil servants who hands them out, and ask him. And he will go. He will go and say that he was sent by Hazrat Mahdi (as). I asked him, and he sent me to you. He sent me so you can give me things, so you must give me some. At that, the civil servant in charge of those goods will say, here you are ... He will be given so much he will not be strong enough to carry it. He will have filled his robe and his pockets and be unable to carry it all. He will then cast some of it away. As he cannot carry it. He will cast away what he cannot carry, and throw it away until he can carry what remains. He will leave the rest behind, there wil be so much of it. He will then leave the treasury, the place where the goods were given to him, with them. But he will be regretful. Would it not be better for me the most devout of heart of the Ummah of Muhammed? Why am I so greedy. Why did I come here. Everyone was invited to come and take things away, but nobody came. Everyone apart from me stayed away. Only I came. And he will regret it. Our Prophet (saas) thus describes that abundance. In this way, this excellent state of affairs, this plenty and abundance will last for 6-7 or 9 years. There are other accounts. Almighty Allah will confirm Hazrat Mahdi (as) with 3000 angels. They will eliminate his opponents. There are accounts saying he will be 30-40 years old. There is this sentence about what he will do after: He will then die, and Muslims will then pray for him. He is someone with excellent qualities. After that, disasters will manifest themselves. After that, life will not be pleasant. This hadith reveals that this will happen because evils multiply. Our Prophet (saas) revealed the future coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as) from his own century. This is one of the hadiths of our Prophet (saas) that reliable foretell the future state of the world, and one group is... (From conversations with Prof. Dr. Esad Cosan)
In this hadith, our Prophet (saas) tells us about Hazrat Mahdi (as). Black flags will come from the direction of Khorasan. Black flags will come from Khorasan. Join them if you see them. Join them even if you have to crawl. Because he is the successor of Allah, the Mahdi. The coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as) is known to be one of the portents of the Day of Resurrection. This is the Mahdi, and he will come from the direction of Khorasan. He will have black banners and Muslims must join him. Khorasan is an area in the northeast of Iran. He will be from the line of the Messenger of Allah (saas). He will bear his name, and his father will bear his father's name. (From conversations with Prof. Dr. Esad Cosan)