The Evolution Deceit
Design and Creation
A designer designs models by means of sketching on blank paper. Everything that the designer has seen up to that point constitutes the base of the idea from which his current design is derived. That is because every form and shape in nature is a design. No human designer can design something that they have never seen or never known.
Let us examine the way that a design follows in the formation of a new design: first, the designer determines the material and purpose of the design. Then the designer determines the potential user, the needs of the user and therefore the parametres of the design.
"He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth…
Among all career groups in the world, industrial product designers are probably those who need the least material while working. That is because besides hard work, a good design requires primarily devising clever ideas or subsidiary details during the process. At the beginning, a designer needs nothing more than a clean sheet of paper and a pen. While forming his design, he of course reviews and takes precedent examples as models.
The designer sketches hundreds of different alternatives for months. Then these ideas are reviewed and, from among them, the most functional and aesthetic is selected for production, after which details of feasible production are studied.
No industrial design can compete with nature. No robotic hand can match the flawlessly functional creation of a human hand.
First, a scale model of the product is made, which transfers two dimensional ideas into three dimensions. After further refinements, an actual size model of the product can be constructed. All of these processes may take years. During this time, the model is also experimented with and tested for user friendliness.
A new design introduced into the market is naturally first evaluated by its appearance by consumers. In general the primary factor in the sales of a product is appearance, i.e. shape, colour, etc. and second, functionality.
Therefore, the process from initial conception to production is quite extensive. In fact, the Sole Owner of all designs is One Who has power over all things. Allah creates all creatures flawlessly through a single command: "be". This is in the verse:
The Originator of the heavens and earth. When He decides on something, He just says to it, 'Be!' and it is. (Surat al-Baqara:117)
The faculty of creating from nothing and without precedent belongs to Allah alone. Humans just copy these examples. Furthermore, the human designer is himself a wonderful creation. Allah created creatures and humans from nothing and bestowed on humans the skills for designing.
For many things that we think are the result of human design there are precedents in nature. The structures and technological products that emerge after years of research had already been present in nature for millions of years.
Aware of these facts, designers, architects and scientists choose to follow the exemplary properties of Allah's creations in designing new products.
Design Examples in Insects
Insects and Robot Technology
It is not only architects who benefit from study of the creation. The engineers who developed robot technologies examined insects for inspiration. Robots constructed upon the model of insect legs prove to stand with better equilibrium. When suction pads are installed on the feet of these robots, they can climb walls just like flies. A particular robot constructed by a Japanese corporation can walk on the ceiling just like an insect. The corporation utilises this robot to inspect under bridges by means of sensors attached to its body.45
The American army has been known to be exploring micro machines for a long time. According to Professor Johannes Smith, a motor smaller than 0.039 inch (one millimetre) can drive a robot the size of an ant. A robot such as this is under consideration for use in a small army of ant-like robots in order to penetrate behind enemy lines undetected and damage jet engines, radars and computer terminals. Two of Japan's largest industrial corporations, Mitsubishi and Matsushita, have already taken the first steps in collaborating on the subject. The outcome of this collaboration is a minute robot weighing 0.015 ounce (0.42 gram) and walking 13 feet (4 metres) a minute.
Design Examples in Insects
From an Insect to a Modern Train Station
In 1987, French politicians commissioned the architect Santiago Calatrava to design Lyon-Satolas, the station for the TGV super fast train. They aimed at expressing the structure of the station in a way which would make it a glamorous, attractive and landmark symbol. Concrete columns support this dinosaur rib-cage like structure, the inspiration for which comes from an insect. Green and blue lights that could easily be found on an insect's shell highlight the structure. Since the grand opening in July 1994,
Chitin: Perfect Cladding Material
Insects are the most populous creatures on earth, which is largely because their bodies are very resistant to many adverse conditions. One of the factors in their resistance is the chitin substance that forms their skeletons.
Chitin, which forms the exoskeletons of many insects, is an ideal material. It is strong, flexible and has insulation features.
Chitin is extremely lightweight and thin. Insects never face hardship maintaining it. Although it wraps the body externally, it is sturdy enough to act as a skeleton. At the same time, it is outstandingly flexible. It can be moved by means of muscles attached to it from inside the body. This not only improves the rapid movement of the insects but also decreases the impact of external blows. It is waterproof because of a special exterior coating, which doesn't allow seepage of any body fluids.46 It is unaffected by heat or radiation. Most of the time, its colour fits the surroundings perfectly. Sometimes it signals warnings through bright colours.
What would happen if such a substance as chitin were used in aircraft and space ships? In fact, this is the dream of many scientists.
The Ideal Shape of Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells have the responsibility of carrying oxygen in the blood. Oxygen is carried in the blood by haemoglobin which is stored in the red blood cells. The larger the surface of this cell, the more oxygen is carried. Since red blood cells have to travel inside capillaries, their volume has to be minimal i.e. they have to have the maximum surface with minimum volume. Hence, red blood cells are specially designed to fit these criteria: they are structured as flat, round and pressed in on both sides, and resemble a wheel of Swiss cheese that is squeezed on both sides. This is the shape that has the largest surface possible with the smallest volume. Each red cell can carry 300 million haemoglobin molecules due to this shape. In addition, red cells can pass through the narrowest capillaries and tightest pores because of their flexibility.47
The Chromatic Eyes of Balloon Fish
Balloon fish reside in the warm seawaters of South-eastern Asia. When excess amounts of light fall on them, the eyes of this fish act as a "chemical sun-glasses". The eyes of this 1 inch long (2.5 centimetre) fish show properties similar to photochromic lenses, the colours of which can become more or less intense depending on the strength of the light.
The system functions as follows: when the fish encounters excessive light, the chromatic cells called "chromatophore", which are located around the transparent layer (cornea) of the eye, start to release a yellowish dye (pigment). This pigment covers the eye and acts as a filter reducing the intensity of light, which enables the fish to see more accurately. In dark waters, this pigment disappears and the eye receives the maximum possible amount of light.48
Design in the Rock Cactus
A. Some plants are created with special properties for defence from plant-eating predators and rodents. Some of these plants display properties miraculously similar to the surrounding environment in which they grow. The best example of these similarities is found in the South African rock cactus.
Due to drought, the surfaces of these plants are extremely wrinkled. When these wrinkles are filled with dust, it becomes impossible even for humans to distinguish these plants from rocks. If it were not for this property, this plant would become an irresistible target for insects and rodents. Another speciality of the rock cactus is the fact that it blossoms with very brightly coloured flowers at the end of the season of drought. Since the majority of creatures are absent at that time, it reduces the risks brought about by the flowers, which could nullify the camouflage.
B. The nectar-containing violet-coloured bellflowers (Campanula persicifolia) and non-nectar containing red-coloured orchid flowers (Cephalanthera rubra) live together in the Mediterranean region. A species of solitary bee (Chelostoma fuliginosum) first visits the bellflower and extracts the nectar. Then it travels to the orchid flowers that have the same colour as the bellflower. However, there it finds no nectar. The orchid flower achieves cross-pollination by this method.
1. Deceived bee
A Special Design for Plants: Leaves
C. Leaves are the respiratory organs of trees: they inhale carbon dioxide and exhale oxygen. Upon close examination, leaf structure appears extraordinarily thin, light and taut, but also very sturdy. They are very resistant to rain and wind. A leaf is covered with vessels that decrease in size from the largest at the stem to the smallest, which are particularly visible on the underside. This structure not only facilitates circulation of substances but also functions as a skeleton ensuring rigidity.
Mechanic System Design of Creatures
Often, the design of moving systems is much more challenging to designers than stationary structural systems. For instance, the problems encountered in the design of a hand-drill are much more numerous than in that of a jug. This is because the former is based on functionality but the latter on form, and function oriented designs are more complicated. Each component of design should serve a purpose for a specific goal. Absence or malfunction of a single component renders the system useless.
Designs with such errors are doomed to failure. Mechanical systems designed by humans generally have more flaws than commonly believed. Many of these systems have been designed by trial and error. Although some defects are eliminated during the prototyping phase prior to the product's introduction to the market, not every defect can be prevented.
The same argument cannot be made for mechanical systems in nature. All the mechanical systems in all creatures are perfect. Allah has created all creatures flawlessly. Let us take a closer look at some of the examples of this perfect creation.
The Skull of Woodpecker
1. Spongy tissue (shock absorber)
In the upper beak movement of a woodpecker, when the beak hits the tree, the bird experiences a tremendous impact. However, there are two mechanisms created to absorb this impact. The first is the spongy connective tissue between the skull and the beak, which softens the impact greatly. The second mechanism is the tongue of the woodpecker. The tongue circles around inside the skull to attach to the top of the woodpecker's head. This arrangement of the tongue muscle is a bit like a sling and may reduce the shock of each beak-to-tree impact. Therefore, the impact (softened by the spongy tissue) is almost reduced to nothing.
Woodpeckers feed on insects and larva, laid inside tree trunks that they uncover by pecking. They carve their nests in living healthy trees, which takes carving skills just as great as those of carpenters.
The great spotted woodpecker can make up to nine or ten strikes per second. This number increases to fifteen to twenty in smaller species of woodpeckers, one of which is the green woodpecker.
While the green woodpecker drills for a nest, the working speed of its beak can exceed 62 mph (100 km/h). This does not affect its brain in any way, which is the size of a cherry. The time lag between two consecutive strikes is less then one thousandth of a second. When it starts pecking, head and beak line up perfectly on a straight line, but the smallest deviation could cause severe ruptures in the brain.
The impact of this kind of hitting is in effect no different from banging the head against a concrete wall. It takes extraordinary design for the bird's brain not to be injured. The skull bones of the majority of birds are joined together, and the beak functions with the motion of the lower jaw. However, the beaks and skulls of woodpeckers have been separated by a spongy tissue that absorbs the shocks of impact. This flexible substance works better than shock-absorbers in automobiles. The excellence of this material derives from its capability of absorbing impacts of very short duration and then restoring itself its to original condition immediately. This performance is maintained even where nearly nine to ten hits are made per second. This material is far superior to materials developed by modern technology. The isolation of the beak from the skull by this extraordinary method enables the compartment holding the woodpecker's brain to move away from the upper beak during hits, and this works as a secondary mechanism for absorbing shocks.49
The Flea: the Ideal Design for High Jumps
Fleas are created to jump extremely high in comparison to their body size of few millimetres.
A flea can jump more than 100 times its own body height, which is equivalent to a human jumping 660 feet (200 metres) high. Furthermore, it can continue jumping like this without rest for 78 hours. In general, the flea does not fall onto its legs after the fifth jump, it lands either on its back or head. However, it neither becomes dizzy nor gets injured, which is due to the design of its body.
The skeleton of the insect is not inside its body. It is composed of a hard layer of a compound called sclerotin, which wraps the entire body and is attached to the chitin. Numerous armoured plates with limited movement form this outer skeleton, which absorbs and eliminates the shock of jumping.
On the other hand, fleas do not have any blood vessels. The inside of the entire body floats in a clear and fluid blood, which acts as a cushioning around all the internal organs and makes them immune to sudden pressure jumps. The blood is cleaned by means of air vents scattered throughout the body. This eliminates the need for a giant pump to continually pump oxygen. Its heart is shaped like a tube and beats at such a low rate that the jumps do not affect it at all.
Scientists discovered through research that the leg muscles of fleas are not as strong as the jumps would really require. The extraordinary performance enjoyed by fleas is made possible by a kind of spring system that is added to its legs, which works because of a rubberlike protein called "resilin", where the flea stores mechanical energy. The outstanding property of this substance is its ability to release in stretching up to 97% percent of the energy that is stored in it. The most flexible material in the market today has a ratio of 85%. This elastic material is located at the base of the large hind legs of the animal in tiny pads. The flea takes a few tenths of seconds to compress this material as it folds it s legs in preparation for a jump. A ratchetlike structure holds the leg folded until a muscle is relaxed and the spring-like structure powers the jump through stored energy in the resilin which translates into tremendous leaps.
Another creature as interesting as the flea, is a species of minute insect living on the flea. These microscopic creatures reside under the armoured plates of the flea.
The Acorn Weevil and its Drilling Mechanism
The acorn weevil lives on the acorns of an oak tree. There is a moderately long snout on the head of this insect, which is actually longer than its own body. At the end of this snout, it has small but extremely sharp saw like teeth.
At other times, the insect holds this snout horizontal, in line with its body, so that it does not interfere when it walks. However, when it is on an acorn, it tilts this snout towards it. Then the insect looks very much like a drilling machine. It leans the saw-like teeth at the tip of its snout against the acorn. The insect turns its head from one side to the other, moving the snout, which starts to drill the acorn. The head of the insect is of a perfect design for the job and displays an extraordinary level of flexibility.
1. The acorn weevil which is created with a special "drilling pipe", has an extraordinary reproduction system.
While drilling with its snout, it also feeds on the fruit inside the acorn. However, it saves the largest portion for its offspring. After drilling, the insect leaves a single egg in the acorn, dropping it there through the hole. Inside the acorn, the egg becomes a larva and starts eating it. The more the larva eats, the more it grows; the more it grows, the more it eats.
The acorn weevil uses its head during drilling, just as is shown in the figure above.
This feeding continues until the acorn falls from the branch, which is the signal for the larva that it is time to leave. By means of its strong teeth, it enlarges the hole that its mother made. The extremely fat larva gets out of the acorn with a great deal of struggle. Now the goal for the larva is to tunnel down about 10-12 inches (25-30 centimetres) under the ground. There it goes through pupation and waits for one to five years. When it becomes a full grown adult, it climbs up and starts drilling acorns in turn. The time differential in the pupation period depends on the new growth of the acorns on the tree.50 The interesting life cycle of the acorn weevil is another evidence of the flawless creation of Allah, and it nullifies the arguments of the theory of evolution. Each mechanism of the insect has been designed within a certain plan. The drilling snout, the cutting teeth on the tip, the flexible structure of the head which helps drilling, cannot all be explained solely by coincidences and "natural selection". The long snout would have been nothing more than a great burden and a disadvantage if it weren't successfully used for drilling, which is why it cannot be argued to have evolved "phase by phase".
The acorn becomes a nest for many other creatures after being used by the acorn weevil. Numerous other insects use acorns during their caterpillar phases and pupation.
Otherwise, the creature could not survive but would become extinct. All of these cannot be explained by coincidence, but show that the creation of these beings displays a superior wisdom.
Allah has created this creature with flawless organs and instincts. He is "the Maker" of everything. (Surat al-Hashr: 24)
The trap of the genlisea resembles animal intestines. The roots that branch out under the ground are hollow swollen tubes. Water is pressured to seep into these tubes. Through the slits in the tubes, there is a flow towards the inside of the plant, which is triggered by little interior hairs. Insects and other small organisms float inside due to the flow of water. All the sections through which the flow passes are covered with bristly hairs that point downward. Along the way, the prey encounters a series of digestive glands, which act like a valve and form a second force pushing the insects into the plant. Finally, the captives become the food of the genlisea.51
Left: The section of the bladderwort and functioning of the trap: 1- The prey touches the hairs of the trap, 2- The trap opens immediately and the prey enters inside, 3 - The gate closes behind the prey.
Right: The amazing structure of genlisea leaves: a cylindrical stem (A) is located after an onion portion (B) followed by another cylindrical stem (C), at the end of which is a fissured mouth (D).
The Trap of the Bladderwort
The bladderwort is a sea plant commonly referred to in the scientific world as Utricularia.
There are three kinds of gland in the trap of the bladderwort: first, the spherical glands located outside the trap; the others, the "four-pointed gland" and "two-pointed gland" are inside. The plant uses these glands as different phases of a trap.
First, the glands activate the extensions attached to them, which start pumping the water out. A very important void forms in the plant. At the mouth is a trap door that keeps water from coming inside. The hairs on this trap are very sensitive to touch. When an insect or organism touches these hairs, the trap opens immediately. Naturally, this creates a strong flow of water towards the inside of the bladderwort. The trap closes behind the prey in a flash. Immediately after this event, which takes place within one thousandth of a second, the digestive glands start releasing digestive secretions.52
The Bacterial Flagellum
Sperm cells, too, use a flagellum in order to move about.
Some bacteria use a whip-like organ called a "flagellum" to move about in a liquid environment. This organ is embedded in to the cell membrane and enables the bacterium to move at will in a chosen direction at a particular speed.
Scientists have known about the flagellum for some time. However, its structural details, which have only emerged over the last decade or so, have come as a great surprise to them. It has been discovered that the flagellum moves by means of a very complicated "organic motor" and not by a simple vibratory mechanism as was earlier believed.
The propeller-like engine is constructed on the same mechanical principles as an electric motor. There are two main parts to it: a moving part ("the rotor") and a stationary one ("the stator").
The bacterial flagellum is different from all other organic systems that produce mechanical motion. The cell does not utilise available energy stored as ATP molecules. Instead, it has a special energy source: bacteria use energy from the flow of ions across their outer cell membranes. The inner structure of the motor is extremely complex. Approximately 240 distinct proteins go into constructing the flagellum. Each one of these is carefully positioned. Scientists have determined that these proteins carry the signals turning the motor on or off, form joints to facilitate movements at the atomic scale, and activate other proteins that connect the flagellum to the cell membrane. The models constructed to summarise the working of the system are enough to depict the complicated nature of the system.53
A. The Structure of an E. Coli Bacteria
B. Diagram of The Motor Mechanism of E. Coli Bacteria
evolution, since the flagellum has an irreducibly complex structure. Even if one single molecule in this fabulously complex structure were to disappear, or become defective, the flagellum would neither work nor be of any use to the bacterium. The flagellum must have been working perfectly from the first moment of its existence. This fact again reveals the nonsense in the theory of evolution's assertion of "step by step development".
The bacterial flagellum is clear evidence that even in supposedly "primitive" creatures, there is an extraordinary design. As humanity becomes more deeply immersed in details, it becomes increasingly obvious that the organisms scientists of the 19th century, including Darwin, considered to be the simplest, are in fact just as complex as any others. In other words, as the perfection of the creation becomes clearer, the senselessness of the struggle to find alternative explanations for the creation is much more obvious.
1. Filament (Propeller)
There are amazing designs even in the creatures that evolutionists regard as “simple”. The bacterial flagellum is one of countless examples. Bacteria travel in water by moving this organ on their membrane. When the inner details of this well-known organ were revealed, the scientific world was extremely surprised to find that bacteria had an extraordinarily complicated electric motor. The electric motor, which is comprised of about fifty different molecular parts, is a wonder of design as shown above.
Design in Dolphins
Dolphins and whales breathe using their lungs just like other mammals, which means they cannot breathe in the water like fish. This is why they regularly visit the surface. The blowhole which is situated on top of their heads work for air intake. This organ is designed in such a way that when the animal dives into water, the opening closes automatically with a special cap in order to prevent water from entering. The cap automatically opens again when the dolphin surfaces.
1. Dorsal Fin
The dolphin has been created with the body form that best fits its environment.
A System that Facilitates Sleep without Drowning
Dolphins fill 80-90% of their lungs with air every time they breathe. However, in many humans this ratio is about 15%. The breathing of dolphins is a conscious act and not a reflex as it is with other land mammals.54
In other words, dolphins consciously decide to breathe as we make the choice to walk. There is a system created to prevent the death of the creature during its sleep under water. The sleeping dolphin uses the right and left hemispheres of its brain alternatively for periods of about fifteen minutes. While one hemisphere sleeps, the dolphin uses the other to surface for air.
The snout of dolphin's beak is another feature that improves their swimming. The animal uses less energy in cutting through the water and swimming at higher speeds. Modern ships, too, make use of a bow like the dolphin's snout, hydro-dynamically designed to increase the speed of ships just like dolphins.
1. Smooth Skin
Social Life of Dolphins
Dolphins live in very large groups. For protection, females and offspring are located in the centre of the group. The sick are not left alone but are kept in the group until they die. The ties of interdependence are formed from the first day a new offspring joins the group.
Dolphin calves are born tail first. This way the infant is provided with oxygen throughout delivery. When at last the head is released, the newly born dolphin rushes for the surface for the first gasp of air. Generally, during delivery another female accompanies the mother giving birth.
Mothers start to nurse their young immediately after birth. The new dolphin, lacking lips to suck, receives milk through two sources coming out of a slit on the mother's ventral surface. When it taps gently on this section, the milk is sprayed out. The young dolphin consumes dozens of quarts (litres) of milk every day. 50% of the milk is composed of fat (compared to 15% in cattle milk), which promptly works towards building the skin layer necessary to regulate body temperature. Other females also help the young dolphins during rapid dives, by pushing them down. Newly born dolphins are also taught how to hunt and use their echolocation sonar, which is an educational process continuing for years. In some cases, young dolphins may never leave a particular family member for up to thirty years.
The System Preventing the Bends
Dolphins can dive down to depths that cannot be matched by humans. The recordholder in this category is a species of whale that can dive down to 9900 feet (3000 metres) on a single breath. Both dolphins and whales are created appropriately for these kinds of dives. The tail flukes make diving and surfacing much easier.
Another aspect of the design for diving is in the lungs of these animals: as the animal descends the weight of the water column above, i.e. the pressure, increases. The pressure inside the lungs is increased to balance the outside pressure. If the same pressure were to be applied to human lungs, they would easily disintegrate. In order to overcome this danger, there is a special defensive system lodged in a dolphin's body: the bronchi and air cells (alveoli) inside the dolphin's lungs are protected by rings of cartilage that are extremely durable.
Another example of the perfection of creation in the bodies of dolphins is the system that prevents the bends. When divers ascend to the surface too quickly, they face this danger. The reason for the bends is the entrance of air directly into the blood and formation of air bubbles in the arteries. These air bubbles can cause death by preventing blood circulation. Whales and dolphins, however, do not face similar dangers, although they breathe using their lungs. This is because they dive with lungs not full of air but empty. Since there is no air in their lungs, they do not run the risk of getting bent.
Nevertheless, this leads to the real question: if they do not have any air in their lungs how do they not suffocate due to lack of oxygen?
The answer to this question lies with the "myoglobin" protein that is found in their muscle tissue in high proportions. The myoglobin proteins have a high affinity for oxygen, so the oxygen necessary for the creature is not stored in the lungs but directly in the muscles. Dolphins and whales can swim without breathing for extended periods, and can dive as deep as they like. Humans also have myoglobin protein, but it cannot sustain the same conditions due to its much smaller volume. This biochemical adjustment unique to dolphins and whales is, of course, evidence of creation. Allah created sea mammals, like the rest of the animals, with body structures best fitted to the conditions in which they live.
The Pump in a Giraffe
A giraffe, with its height nearly 16.5 feet (5 metres), is one of the largest creatures. In order to survive, the animal has to send blood to a brain located approximately 6.6 feet (2 metres) above the heart. This requires an extraordinary heart structure. Consequently, the heart of the giraffe is strong enough to pump blood at a pressure of 350 mmHg.
Such a powerful system, which would normally kill a human, is contained within a special chamber, and has been wrapped with a web of capillaries in order to reduce the deadly affects.
In the section between the head and the heart there is a U-shaped system, comprised of an ascending and descending vessel. The blood flowing in vessels of opposite direction balances itself, which saves the animal from dangerously high blood pressures that can cause internal bleeding.
The portion below the heart, especially legs and feet, needs special protection. The extra thickness of giraffe skin on legs and feet prevents adverse affects of high blood pressure. In addition, there are valves inside the vessels that help regulate the pressure.
The biggest danger is when the animal lowers its head to the ground in order to get a drink of water. The blood pressure, which is normally high enough to cause internal bleeding, now increases even more. However, there a measure has been taken against these affects. A special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid, which bathes the brain and the spinal column itself, produces a counterpressure to prevent rupture or capillary leakage. In addition, there are one-way check valves which close when the animal lowers its head. These valves reduce the flow of blood significantly, and the giraffe can safely drink and raise its head. As a caution against dangers of high blood pressure, the vessels of the giraffe are very thick and created in multiple layers.
The Design of Honeybees' Defence Strategy
Giant hornets in Japan are perfect enemies for the honeybees of Europe. 30 hornets attacking a hive can exterminate about 30,000 bees in three hours. But the honeybees are created with a perfect defence mechanism.
The defence weapon of the honeybees is their sting. However, when their sting is not effective, they can use increased body heat to kill their enemies. Similarly, honeybees can kill a hornet by using their bodies. In the heat sensitive photograph of such an attack, the temperature of the red areas can reach 1180F (480C).
When a hornet discovers a new bee colony, it communicates the news to others by secreting a special smell. The same odour is also detected by the honeybees, which start congregating at the entrance of the beehive for defence. When a hornet draws near, approximately 500 honeybees immediately surround it. They start vibrating their bodies and increase their body temperatures. This, to the wasp, feels like being stuck in an oven and at the end of this the wasp dies. In the heat sensitive photograph of such an attack, the temperature of the white areas can reach 1180F (480C). Such a high temperature is bearable for honeybees but lethal to the hornets.55
Miracles of Reproduction in Frogs
Many suppose that frogs multiply through hatching eggs and developing "tadpoles". However, there are many other types of frog reproduction of which some are quite surprising.
Frogs have been created with traits that enable them to survive in a variety of environments. Therefore, they can live in every continent apart from Antarctica; there are species of frogs living in deserts, forests, meadows and the Himalayas and Andes, where altitudes exceed 16,500 feet (5000 metres). The densest populations are scattered throughout the tropical regions. Approximately forty species of frogs have been identified within a 0.8 square mile (2 square kilometre) piece of rain forest.
In some species of frogs, only males care for the newly born, whereas in others only females do or both partners do. For example, males of the "dart-poison frog" of Costa Rica keep watch, waiting for the eggs to hatch, for up to 10-12 days. Through great efforts, the newly born tadpoles climb and hold on to the back of the mother so tightly that they appear to have been welded on. Then the mother climbs onto a bromeliad in the forest. The flowers of this tree are shaped like goblets pointing skyward, and are filled with water. The mother releases the newly born frogs into these flowers, where they grow safely.
Since there is no food in these waters, the mother frequently lays unfertilised eggs in the flowers for the newly born frogs. The tadpoles feed on these eggs, which are rich in protein and carbohydrates.56
Dart-poison frogs live in Costa Rica. (1) Male frogs keep watch waiting over the eggs until they hatch. The newly born tadpoles start to climb on to the back of their mothers with extraordinary efforts. (2)
The climb ends when they finally make it to a special pouch on the mother’s back, in which the tadpoles become as if one with her. (3) Then the mother herself begins a trying climb. This phase ends when she reaches the flowers of the bromeliad. The flowers of this tree are shaped like goblets pointing skyward, and are filled with water. The mother releases the tadpoles into these flowers where they grow safely. (4)
The "gladiator frog" is another species that defends the area in which are the eggs. The males of these frogs have been created with pin-like extensions under their thumbs, with which they rip the skin off an intruder male.
The male small African toad (Nectophyrne afra) constructs nests out of mud, which are filled with water to form ponds, on the coasts of lakes or slow flowing rivers. The frog makes a fragile layer of film on the surface of the water to which the eggs attach themselves.
This way, the eggs stay on the surface of the water in order to inhale oxygen. Since a minute vibration caused by another frog or a dragonfly's flying past can destroy this film and send the eggs to the bottom of the water, where they would be left to die without oxygen, the male frog guards the eggs. While waiting, it kicks its feet in the water in order to increase oxygen flow through the membranes of the eggs.
Another species, called the glass frog due to its transparency, does not keep watch over its eggs. Allah inspires another method in these frogs; they leave groups of eggs on the rocks and plants of the tropical lakes or rivers. When the eggs hatch, the tadpoles drop into the water.
All of these various conscious and self-sacrificing behavioural patterns, displayed by different species of frogs as acts of defence for the newly born tadpoles, demolish the fundamental assumptions of Darwinism. The assertion of Darwinism that all creatures are in an individual and selfish struggle for survival comes to an inevitable dead end in the face of the efforts of a single frog to defend its newly born offspring. Furthermore, the intelligent behaviour shown by these creatures cannot be explained away as occurring through coincidence as argued by Darwinism. These are clear signs that living things have been created by Allah and are directed by the instincts inspired in them. Allah states in Qur'an that there are clear proofs in living things for all people:
And in your creation and all the creatures He has spread about there are Signs for people with certainty. (Surat al-Jathiya: 4)
Frogs Reproduced in the Stomach
There is a fierce battle for territory between spiders and frogs. However, spiders generally prefer to retreat when they encounter these poisonous frogs, which are even capable of easily killing human beings.
The extraordinary reproduction method of a species of frog called Rheobatrachus silus, is another example of the superb design in the creation of Allah. Female Rheobatrachus frogs swallow their eggs after fertilisation, not to eat them but to protect them. The hatching tadpoles remain and grow in the stomach for the first six weeks after hatching. How is it possible that they can remain in their mother's stomach that long without being digested?
A flawless system has been created to enable them to do so. First, the female ceases to feed for those six weeks, which means the stomach is reserved solely for the tadpoles. However, another danger is the regular release of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach. These chemicals would normally quickly kill the offspring. However, this is prevented by a very special measure. The fluids in the stomach of the mother are neutralised by the hormonelike substance prostaglandin E2, which is secreted first by the egg capsules and then by the tadpoles. Hence, the offspring grow healthily, even though they are swimming in a pool of acid.
How do the tadpoles feed inside the empty stomach? The solution to this has been thought of, too. The eggs of this species are significantly larger than those of others, as they contain a yoke very rich in proteins, sufficient to feed the tadpoles for six weeks. The time of birth is designed perfectly as well. The oesophagus of the female frog dilates during birth. Once the young have emerged, the oesophagus and the stomach both return to normal, and the female starts feeding again.57
The Rheobatrachus frog giving birth from its mouth.
The miraculous reproductive system of Rheobatrachus silus explicitly invalidates the theory of evolution, since this system is irreducibly complex. Every step has to take place fully in order for the frogs to survive. The mother has to swallow the eggs, and has to stop feeding completely for 6 weeks. The eggs have to release a hormonelike substance to neutralise stomach acids. The addition of the extra protein-rich yolk to the egg is another necessity. The widening of the female's oesophagus cannot be coincidental. If all these things failed to happen in the requisite sequence, the froglets would not survive and the species would face extinction.
Therefore, this system cannot have developed step-by-step, as asserted by the theory of evolution. The very first frog of the Rheobatrachus silus species existed with this complete flawless system. All of the creatures examined throughout this book prove the same fact: there is a supreme design in creation encompassing all nature. Allah created all living things with irreducible complexity, in which His infinite power and knowledge are illustrated for those who examine them. The flawless creation of Allah is depicted as follows:
He is Allah - the Creator, the Maker, the Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything in the heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Surat al-Hashr: 24)
Greatest Design: Universe
There are unchangeable fundamental laws in the universe, which affect all animate and inanimate beings alike. These laws are proofs that illustrate the perfection in the creation of the universe just as are the flawless creatures that live therein. Today, these hints are presented to us as laws of physics as discovered largely by physicists. The laws ordinarily accepted as "laws of physics" are evidence of the perfection in creation of Allah. (For detailed information refer to: Harun Yahya, The Creation of the Universe).
Let us give just a few examples of the perfection of design in the universe.
For instance, let us examine one of a dozen crucial properties of rainwater: the "viscosity of water".
Different liquids have different degrees of viscosity. However, the viscosity of water is perfect for the use of all creatures. If it was a little higher than it is, plants could not have used it for transporting the nutrients vitally important for survival within their capillary tubes.
If the viscosity of water were lower than it is, the flow of rivers would have been a great deal different, hence the mountain formations would have changed, valleys and plateaus would not have formed, and rocks could not have disintegrated to form soil.
Water also facilitates the circulation of the red blood cells that defend our bodies against microbes and dangerous substances. If water's viscosity were greater, the movement of these cells within the vessels would have been totally impossible, the heart would have been overwhelmed in pumping the blood and would possibly have failed to obtain the energy necessary for this job.
Even these few examples sufficiently illustrate that water is a fluid that has been especially created for living beings. Allah, in reference to water, states in a verse:
It is He Who sends down water from the sky. From it you drink and from it come the shrubs among which you graze your herds. And by it He makes crops grow for you and olives and dates and grapes and fruit of every kind. There is certainly a Sign in that for people who reflect. (Surat an-Nahl: 10-11)
Balance of Forces
What would happen if the gravitational force were greater than it is today? Running or walking would be impossible. Humans and animals would spend much more energy moving about, which would diminish the energy resources of the earth. What if gravity were less powerful? Light objects could not maintain their state of balance. For instance, dust particles picked up by breezes would float in the air for long periods. The speed of raindrops would decrease, and they possibly would evaporate before reaching the ground. Rivers would flow more slowly and hence electricity would not be generated at the same rate.
All this is rooted in the property of the gravitational pull of masses. Newton's law of gravitation states that the force of the gravitational attraction between objects depends on their masses and the distance between them. Hence, if the distance between two stars is increased three times, the gravitational force is decreased by a factor of nine, or if the distance is decreased to half, the force of gravity is increased four times.
This law helps explain the current positions of the earth, moon and planets. If the law of gravitation were different, for example, if the gravitational force were increased as the distance increased, the orbits of the planets would not be elliptical and they would collapse into the sun. If it were weaker, the earth would be set on a course steadily away from the sun. So, if the force of gravity did not have precisely the value it does, the earth would either collide with the sun or be lost in the depths of space.
What if Planck's Constant were Different?
We encounter different forms of energy all the time. For instance, even the heat that we sense in front of the fire has been created with intricate balances.
In physics, energy is assumed to radiate not as a wave but in small particular amounts called "quanta". In calculating the radiant energy, a certain unchanging value called Planck's Constant is used. This number is generally small enough to be considered negligible. This number is one of the fundamental and unchanging indices in nature, which is approximately expressed as 6.626x10-34. In any situation involving radiation, if the energy of a photon is divided by its frequency the result will always equal this constant. All forms of electromagnetic energy, i.e. heat, light, etc. are governed by Planck's Constant.
If this minute number were a different size, then the heat we sense in front of a fire would have been much stronger. Either, at one extreme, the smallest fire could have contained enough energy to burn us up or at the other extreme, even a giant fireball the size of the sun would not have been sufficient to warm the earth.
Frictional forces are generally considered inconveniences, as they are encountered especially while moving things in our daily lives. However, what would the world be like if frictional forces were completely eliminated? Pens and papers would slip out of our hands and fall down from the table to the floor, tables would slide to the corners of rooms, and in short all objects would fall and roll until everything finally came to a stop at the lowest point. In a frictionless world, all knots would untie, screws and nails would come off, no cars could ever brake, while sounds would never die but echoe endlessly.
All forms of electromagnetic energy, i.e. heat, light, etc. are governed by Planck's Constant. If this minute number were a different size, then the heat we sense in front of a fire would have been much stronger. Either, at one extreme, the smallest fire could have contained enough energy to burn us up or at the other extreme, even a giant fireball the size of the sun would not have been sufficient to warm the earth.
All of these laws of physics are clear proofs that the universe, just like all the creatures within it, is a product of divine design. In fact, the laws of physics are nothing but human explanations and descriptions of the divine order that Allah has created. Allah has created the unchanging laws of order in the universe and put them in the service of humans so that man will reflect upon and understand the Sovereignty of Allah and give thanks for His blessings.
One can continue giving countless examples in illustration of the order in the creation of Allah. Every created thing since the formation of the universe millions of years ago has been brought into existence by nothing other than the Omniscience and Sovereignty of Allah.
"He who created the seven heavens in
They said 'Glory be to You!
44. Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box, P. 82.
45. T.E. Akiowa & F.C. Schuster, Wars and Technologies, Detroit: Anderson Bookhouse, 1997, P. 83.
46. Ali Demirsoy, Yasamin Temel Kurallari (Basic Fundamentals of Life), P. 18-22.
47. Marshall Cavendish, The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of The Human Body, Pp. 50-51.
48. Bilim Ve Teknik (Journal of Science and Technology), February 1992.
49. Bilim Ve Teknik Görsel Bilim Ve Teknik Ansiklopedisi (Encyclopedia of Science and Technology), P. 116.
50. Mark W. Moffett, "Life in a Nutshell", National Geographic, Pp.783-784.
51. Bilim Ve Teknik Görsel Bilim Ve Teknik Ansiklopedisi (Encyclopedia of Science and Technology), P. 2995
52. Stanley Taylor, "Life Underwater" Botanic, Issue 83, February 1988, P. 24.
53. Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box, New York: Free Press, 1996, Pp. 69-73.
54. Betty Mamane, "Le Surdoué Du Grand Bleu", Science Et Vie Junior, August 1998, Pp. 79-84.
55. "If Attacked, Japanese Bees Shake and Bake", National Geographic, April 1996, Page 2.
56. "Poison Dart Frogs – Lurid and Lethal", National Geographic, May 1995, Pp. 103-110.
57. Reproductive Strategies of Frogs, William E. Duellman, Scientific American, July 1992, Pp. 58-65